The prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy among a multi-ethnic population resident in Norway

Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo, Norway Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Department of Endocrinology, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Norway Department of General Practice, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Norway Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (Impact Factor: 3.45). 07/2012; 119(11):1354-60. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03435.x
Source: PubMed


Please cite this paper as: Bø K, Pauck Øglund G, Sletner L, Mørkrid K, Jenum A. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy among a multi-ethnic population resident in Norway. BJOG 2012;119:1354–1360.
Objectives To investigate prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, and to analyse for possible associations of the known risk factors for UI in such a population.
Design Population-based cross-sectional study.
Setting All pregnant women in three administrative city districts attending the Child Health Clinics.
Population and sample Out of 823 women identified in first trimester, 722 (74%) agreed to participate in the study at 28 weeks of gestation. Inclusion criteria were: healthy women at 20 weeks of gestation or less and able to communicate in Norwegian, Arabic, English, Sorani, Somali, Tamil, Turkish, Urdu or Vietnamese.
Methods Differences between ethnic groups were tested by simple descriptive statistics. Associations were estimated by logistic regression analysis and presented as crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) odds ratios.
Main outcome measures Prevalence of UI as ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire—urinary incontinence—short form.
Results Prevalence rates of UI at 28 weeks of gestation were 26% for women of African origin, 36% for women of Middle Eastern origin, 40% for women of East Asian origin, 43% for women of South Asian origin and 45% for women of European/North American origin. The difference was significant between women of African and European/North American origins (P = 0.011) and between women of African and South Asian origins (P = 0.035). Age (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01–1.09) and parity (aOR 2.34; 95% CI 1.66–3.28) were positively associated with the prevalence of UI in pregnancy. Women of African origin had significantly reduced odds for UI (aOR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20–0.87). East Asian and African women reported the highest perceived impact of UI in pregnancy.
Conclusions A high prevalence of UI was found in a multi-ethnic pregnant population.

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    • "The present result illustrates that there was a statistical significant difference between obesity and urina ry stress incontinence as a maternal medical history, this findings may attribute the fact that increasing pressure of the growing uterus and fetal weight on pelvic floor muscles throughout pregnancy when intra-abdominal pres sure increases, pressure inside the bladder becomes greater than the urethral closure pressure, and the urethral sp hincter is not strong enough to close the urethra, resulting in urine leakage. This findings agree with what menti oned before which stated that the Prevalence ranging from 18.6 % to 75 %, (Sangsawan, B. and Sangsawang, N. 2013, Bø K,,et al ,2012, Moher ,et al ,2009 and Martins ,et al.2010). Concerning to premature rupture of membrane, the present study revealed that there was a statistically significant relation between PROM and increasing body mass index. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to assess the hospital based rate of high-risk obese pregnant women at Qena University Hospital, Assess the antenatal Obstetric and Medical complications associated with Obesity among these women and Provide health education for those obese pregnant women about the dietary requirements. Setting: the inpatient antenatal word OF Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments at Qena University Hospital Duration: from 1 Patients&Methds: Cross Sectional, study of 350 cases of high-risk pregnant women admitted at the inpatient antenatal word at Qena University Hospital was used. Completing semi-structured interviewing sheet from All high risk pregnant obese women with single fetus who have the BMI ≥ 29. After completing the sheet, giving them brochures about nutrition according to their diagnosis and explaining how to follow. Results. More than half (57.4%) of the sample were classified as obesity class one among high risk pregnant women. Complications of obesity increased among high risk pregnant women such as previous caesarean section rate (38.3%), PROM were (13.4%), pregnancy induced hypertension (11.7 %), other risk factors about (16.3 %). Conclusions: hospital based rate of obesity was one third of the total flow of pregnant women at this hospital was obese with high risk pregnancy more than half of high risk pregnant were classified as obesity class one and the most common obstetrics' complications associated with obesity were previous caesarean section and premature rupture of membrane respectively. Recommendations: Nutrition and exercise counseling should begins from pre-puberty, during pregnancy, continues postpartum and before attempting another pregnancy.
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    • "The most common type of UI in pregnant women is SUI. The number of pregnant women with SUI in our literature review was variable, with prevalence ranging from 18.6 % to 75 % [16–32, 34] and increasing with gestational age. The increasing pressure of the growing uterus and fetal weight on PFM throughout pregnancy, together with pregnancy-related hormonal changes, may lead to reduced strength of the supportive and sphincteric function of PFM. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and hypothesis Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most common type of urinary incontinence (UI) in pregnant women and is known to have detrimental effects on the quality of life in approximately 54.3 %. Pregnancy is the main risk factor for the development of SUI. This review provides details of the pathophysiology leading to SUI in pregnant women and SUI prevalence and treatment during pregnancy. Methods We conducted a PubMed search for English-language and human-study articles registered from January 1990 to September 2012. This search was performed for articles dealing with prevalence and treatment of SUI during pregnancy. In the intervention studies, we included studies that used a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design or studies comparing a treatment intervention to no treatment. Results A total of 534 articles were identified; 174 full-text articles were reviewed, and 28 of them met eligibility criteria and are reported on here. The mean prevalence of SUI during pregnancy was 41 % (18.6–60 %) and increased with gestational age. The increasing pressure of the growing uterus and fetal weight on pelvic-floor muscles (PFM) throughout pregnancy, together with pregnancy-related hormonal changes, may lead to reduced PFM strength as well as their supportive and sphincteric function. These cause mobility of the bladder neck and urethra, leading to urethral sphincter incompetence. Pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) is a safe and effective treatment for SUI during pregnancy, without significant adverse effects. Conclusions Understanding these issues can be useful for health-care professionals when informing and counseling pregnant women to help prevent SUI during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
    International Urogynecology Journal 02/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.1007/s00192-013-2061-7 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between vaginal or cesarean delivery and urinary incontinence (UI) and identify the trend in the change in UI within the first 12 months postpartum. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 330 of 749 women who completed a UI questionnaire and a personal characteristics questionnaire over five visits in a medical center. The vaginal delivery group had a significant higher prevalence of any UI at 4-6 weeks and at 3, 6, and 12 months (29.1-40.2% vaginal compared with 14.2-25.5% cesarean); stress urinary incontinence (SUI) at 4-6 weeks and 3 and 12 months (15.9-25.4% vaginal compared with 6.4-15.6% cesarean); and moderate or severe UI at 3-5 days, 4-6 weeks, and 6 months (7.9-18.5% vaginal compared with 4.3-11.3% cesarean); and a significant higher score for interference in daily life at 3-5 days and 4-6 weeks (1.0, 0.7 vaginal compared with 0.7, 0.4 cesarean) compared with those in the cesarean delivery group. Prevalence increased for any UI, SUI, and slight UI (all P<.02) and daily life interference score decreased (P=.02) for women who had a vaginal delivery through 1 year postpartum. Vaginal delivery was associated with higher UI prevalence that persisted for 1 year postpartum, but there was no association with interference in daily life after 6 weeks postpartum. Variation was observed in UI changes within the first year in the vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 02/2014; 123(3). DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000141 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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