Quantitation of DNA Adducts by Stable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry
ABSTRACT Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations and potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Because of their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples, including immunoassay, HPLC, and (32)P-postlabeling, isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adduct concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01-10 adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry, especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS, have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke.
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ABSTRACT: The oxidation of guanine to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is one of the most abundant and best studied oxidative DNA lesions and is commonly used as a biomarker for oxidative stress. Over the last decades, various methods for the detection of DNA oxidation products have been established and optimized. However, some of them lack sensitivity or are prone to artifact formation, while others are time-consuming, which hampers their application in screening approaches. In this study, we present a formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-based method to detect oxidative lesions in isolated DNA using a modified protocol of the automated version of the fluorimetric detection of alkaline DNA unwinding (FADU) method, initially developed for the measurement of DNA strand breaks [Moreno-Villanueva et al. (2009) BMC Biotechnol, 9, 39]. The FADU-Fpg method was validated using a plasmid DNA model, mimicking mitochondrial DNA, and the results were correlated to 8-oxo-dG levels as measured by LC-MS/MS. The FADU-Fpg method can be applied to analyze the potential of compounds to induce DNA strand breaks and oxidative lesions, as exemplified here by treating plasmid DNA with the peroxynitrite-generating molecule Sin-1. Moreover, this method can be used to screen DNA-protective effects of antioxidant substances, as exemplified here for a small-molecule, i.e. uric acid, and a protein, i.e. manganese superoxide dismutase, both of which displayed a dose-dependent protection against the generation of oxidative DNA lesions. In conclusion, the automated FADU-Fpg method offers a rapid and reliable measurement for the detection of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage in a cell-free system, rendering it an ideal method for screening the DNA-protective effects of antioxidant compounds.Toxicology 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2013.05.006 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this book is to assist environmental authorities and technicians in the design of effective environmental monitoring programs.Consensus exists that any good management program must be able to distinguish between natural variability and changes induced by anthropogenic activities. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to implement continuous monitoring programs. Sampling design is critical for the success of these programs due to the high spatio-temporal variability of coastal ecosystems. No potential sources of pollution should be neglected in sampling design, such as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which has been recognized as an important link between the continent and the ocean. Additionally, sampling design should avoid Type II decision errors (false negatives), which means a problem is not found when in fact it does exist. Being able to detect undesired effects is indispensable to adopt preventive and corrective measures. It is essential that these programs change their primarily anthropocentric focus to an ecocentric focus. The need to cover large spatial regions periodically makes necessary the development and application of new technologies such as remote sensing data into monitoring programs. The development of environmental “diagnostic” tools to allow early warning detection of pollution exposure, such as biomarker measurements in bioindicator organisms, are also valuable tools for environmental monitoring, which are examined in this book.https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=53814 edited by Maria-Teresa Sebastiá-Frasquet, 05/2015; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63482-189-6
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ABSTRACT: 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meats, is metabolically activated to electrophilic intermediates that form covalent adducts with DNA and protein. We previously identified an adduct of PhIP formed at the Cys34 residue of human serum albumin following reaction of albumin with the genotoxic metabolite 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (HONH-PhIP). The major adducted peptide recovered from a tryptic/chymotryptic digest was identified as the missed-cleavage peptide LQQC*[SO2PhIP]PFEDHVK, a [Cysteine-S-yl-PhIP]-S-dioxide linked adduct. In this investigation, we have characterized the albumin adduction products of N-sulfooxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-sulfooxy-PhIP), which is thought to be a major genotoxic metabolite of PhIP formed in vivo. Targeted and data-dependent scanning methods showed that N-sulfooxy-PhIP adducted to the Cys34 of albumin in human plasma to form LQQC*[SO2PhIP]PFEDHVK at levels that were 8 to 10-fold greater than the adduct levels formed with N-(acetyloxy)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-acetoxy-PhIP) or HONH-PhIP. We also discovered that N-sulfooxy-PhIP forms an adduct at the sole tryptophan (Trp214) residue of albumin in the sequence AW*[PhIP]AVAR. However, stable adducts of PhIP with albumin were not detected in human hepatocytes. Instead, PhIP and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (5-HO-PhIP), a solvolysis product of the proposed nitrenium ion of PhIP, were recovered during the proteolysis, suggesting a labile sulfenamide linkage had formed between an N-oxidized intermediate of PhIP and Cys34 of albumin. A stable adduct was formed at the Tyr411 residue of albumin in hepatocytes, and identified as a deaminated product of PhIP, Y*[desaminoPhIP]TK, where the 4-HO-tyrosine group bound to the C-2 imidazole atom of PhIP.Chemical Research in Toxicology 03/2015; 28(5). DOI:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00075 · 4.19 Impact Factor