Risk of Malignancy in Thyroid Incidentalomas Detected by F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Systematic Review
ABSTRACT Background: The expanding use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with an incidentaloma in the thyroid gland. We aimed to review the proportion of incidental thyroid cancers found by (18)F-FDG PET or PET/computed tomography imaging. Methods: Studies evaluating thyroid carcinomas discovered incidentally in patients or healthy volunteers by (18)F-FDG PET were systematically searched in the PubMed database from 2000 to 2011. The main exclusion criteria were known thyroid disease, lack of assigned diagnoses, investigation of diffuse uptake only, or investigation of patients with head and neck cancer, or cancer in the upper part of the thorax. Results: Twenty-two studies met our criteria comprising a total of 125,754 subjects. Of these, 1994 (1.6%) had unexpected focal hypermetabolic activity, while 999 of 48,644 individuals (2.1%) had an unexpected diffuse hypermetabolic activity in the thyroid gland. A diagnosis was assigned in 1051 of the 1994 patients with a focal uptake, 366 of whom (34.8%) had thyroid malignancy. Likewise, a diagnosis was assigned in 168 of 999 patients with a diffuse uptake, 7 of whom (4.4%) had thyroid malignancy. In the eight studies reporting individual maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)), the mean SUV(max) was 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1) and 6.9 (SD 4.7) in benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions: Incidentally found thyroid nodules, using (18)F-FDG PET, are at high risk of harboring malignancy if uptake is focal. SUV are significantly higher in malignant than in benign nodules. The pronounced inhomogeneity and other shortcomings of the studies are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effects and to shape the delivery of value based care. Valid generic and disease specific tools are available for quantifying HRQoL in patients with non-toxic goitre. However, few studies have applied these validated instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with benign non-toxic goitre. Limited evidence suggests that patients with non-toxic goitre have HRQoL impairments in multiple HRQoL domains. While the HRQoL-impact of non-toxic goitre may be small relative to other severely disabling medical conditions, treatment is almost exclusively elected for HRQoL indications. Thus better quantification of HRQoL, particularly at higher levels, is essential. Web and mobile technologies have eased the ability to deliver surveys to patients. Routine consideration of HRQoL provides the opportunity to monitor the impact of treatment on the outcomes most meaningful for patients and the opportunity to help shape the delivery of value based healthcare.Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 01/2014; 28(4):559–575. DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2014.01.009 · 4.91 Impact Factor
- European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 07/2012; 39(10):1658-9. DOI:10.1007/s00259-012-2191-z · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) with different tracers have been increasingly used in patients with thyroid tumours. The aim of this article is to perform an overview based on literature data about the usefulness of PET imaging in this setting. The role of Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and PET/CT in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is well established, particularly in patients presenting with elevated serum thyroglobulin levels and negative radioiodine whole-body scan. Iodine-124 PET and PET/CT may serve a role in staging DTC and obtaining lesional dosimetry for a better and more rationale planning of treatment with Iodine-131. FDG-PET and PET/CT are useful in the post-thyroidectomy staging of high-risk patients with less differentiated histological subtypes. PET and PET/CT with different tracers seem to be useful methods in localizing the source of elevated calcitonin levels in patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma. Incorporation of FDG-PET or PET/CT into the initial workup of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules at fine needle aspiration biopsy deserves further investigation. FDG-PET report should suggest further evaluation when focal thyroid incidentalomas are described because these findings are associated with a significant risk of cancer.Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 10/2012; 270(6). DOI:10.1007/s00405-012-2205-2 · 1.61 Impact Factor