Photonic Gene Circuits by Optically Addressable siRNA-Au Nanoantennas

UCSF/UCB Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center, Department of Bioengineering, University of California-Berkeley , Berkeley, California, United States.
ACS Nano (Impact Factor: 12.03). 07/2012; 6(9):7770-80. DOI: 10.1021/nn301744x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The precise perturbation of gene circuits and the direct observation of signaling pathways in living cells are essential for both fundamental biology and translational medicine. Current optogenetic technology offers a new paradigm of optical control for cells; however, this technology relies on permanent genomic modifications with light-responsive genes, thus limiting dynamic reconfiguration of gene circuits. Here, we report precise control of perturbation and reconfiguration of gene circuits in living cells by optically addressable siRNA-Au nanoantennas. The siRNA-Au nanoantennas fulfill dual functions as selectively addressable optical receivers and biomolecular emitters of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Using siRNA-Au nanoantennas as optical inputs to existing circuit connections, photonic gene circuits are constructed in living cells. We show that photonic gene circuits are modular, enabling subcircuits to be combined on-demand. Photonic gene circuits open new avenues for engineering functional gene circuits useful for fundamental bioscience, bioengineering, and medical applications.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multimodal nanostructures can help solve many problems in the biomedical field including sensitive molecular imaging, highly specific therapy, and early cancer detection. However, the synthesis of densely packed, multicomponent nanostructures with multimodal functionality represents a significant challenge. Here, a new type of hybrid magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles is developed using an oil-in-water microemulsion method. The nanostructures are synthetized by self-assembly of primary 6 nm iron oxide core-gold shell particles resulting into densely packed spherical nanoclusters. The dense packing of primary particles does not change their superparamagnetic behavior; however, the close proximity of the constituent particles in the nanocluster leads to strong near-infrared (NIR) plasmon resonances. The synthesis is optimized to eliminate nanocluster cytotoxicity. Immunotargeted nanoclusters are also developed using directional conjugation chemistry through the Fc antibody moiety, leaving the Fab antigen recognizing region available for targeting. Cancer cells labeled with immunotargeted nanoclusters produce a strong photoacoustic signal in the NIR that is optimum for tissue imaging. Furthermore, the labeled cells can be efficiently captured using an external magnetic field. The biocompatible magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles can make a significant impact in development of point-of-care assays for detection of circulating tumor cells, as well as in cell therapy with magnetic cell guidance and imaging monitoring.
    Advanced Functional Materials 11/2014; 24(43). DOI:10.1002/adfm.201401806 · 10.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We probe how amphiphilic ligands (ALs) of four different types affect the formation of protein coronas on gold nanorods (NRs) and their impact on cellular response. NRs coated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were ligand exchanged with polyoxyethylene[10]cetyl ether, oligofectamine, and phosphatidylserine (PS). Protein coronas from equine serum (ES) were formed on these NR-ALs, and their colloidal stability, as well as cell uptake, proliferation, oxidative stress, and gene expression, were examined. We find that the protein corona that forms and its colloidal stability are affected by AL type and that the cellular response to these NR-AL-coronas (NR-AL-ES) is both ligand and corona dependent. We also find that the presence of common cell culture supplement penicillin/streptomycin can impact the colloidal stability and cellular response of NR-AL and NR-AL-ES, showing that the cell response is not necessarily inert to pen/strep when in the presence of nanoparticles. Although the protein corona is what the cells see, the underlying surface ligands evidently play an important role in shaping and defining the physical characteristics of the corona, which ultimately impacts the cellular response. Further, the results of this study suggest that the cellular behavior toward NR-AL is mediated by not only the type of AL and the protein corona it forms but also its resulting colloidal stability and interaction with cell culture supplements.
    ACS Nano 04/2014; 8(5). DOI:10.1021/nn5002886 · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metal nanoparticles (NPs) scatter and absorb light in precise, designable ways, making them agile candidates for a variety of biomedical applications. When NPs are introduced to a physiological environment and interact with cells, their physicochemical properties can change as proteins adsorb on their surface and they agglomerate within intracellular endosomal vesicles. Since the plasmonic properties of metal NPs are dependent on their geometry and local environment, these physicochemical changes may alter the NPs' plasmonic properties, on which applications such as plasmonic photothermal therapy and photonic gene circuits are based. Here we systematically study and quantify how metal NPs' optical spectra change upon introduction to a cellular environment in which NPs agglomerate within endosomal vesicles. Using darkfield hyperspectral imaging, we measure changes in the peak wavelength, broadening, and distribution of 100-nm spherical gold NPs' optical spectra following introduction to human breast adenocarcinoma Sk-Br-3 cells as a function of NP exposure dose and time. On a cellular level, spectra shift up to 78.6 ± 23.5 nm after 24 h of NP exposure. Importantly, spectra broaden with time, achieving a spectral width of 105.9 ± 11.7 nm at 95% of the spectrum's maximum intensity after 24 h. On an individual intracellular NP cluster (NPC) level, spectra also show significant shifting, broadening, and heterogeneity after 24 h. Cellular transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electromagnetic simulations of NPCs support the trends in spectral changes we measured. These quantitative data can help guide the design of metal NPs introduced to cellular environments in plasmonic NP-mediated biomedical technologies.
    Nanoscale Research Letters 08/2014; 9(1):454. DOI:10.1186/1556-276X-9-454 · 2.52 Impact Factor