Author's personal copy Biological and conformational evaluation of angiotensin II lactam bridge containing analogues
Regulatory Peptides (Impact Factor: 1.83). 08/2011; 1(3):1-7.
Angiotensin II (AII) is the active octapeptide product of the renin enzymatic cascade, which is responsible for sustaining blood pressure. In an attempt to establish the AII-receptor-bound conformation of this octapeptide, we designed conformationally constrained analogues by scanning the entire AII sequence with an i-(i + 2) and i-(i + 3) lactam bridge consisting of an Asp-(Xaa) n -Lys scaffold. Most analogues presented low agonistic activity when compared to AII in the different bioassays tested. The exceptions are cyclo(0-1a) [Asp 0 , endo-(Lys 1a)]-AII (1) and [Asp 0 , endo-(Lys 1a)]-AII (2), both of which showed activity similar to AII. Based on peptide 1 and the analogue cyclo(3–5)[Sar 1 , Asp 3 , Lys 5 ]-AII characterized by Matsoukas et al., we analyzed the agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, through a new monocyclic peptide series synthesized by using the following combinations of residues as bridgehead elements for the lactam bond formation: D-or L-Asp combined with D-or L-Lys or L-Glu combined with L-Orn. Six analogues showed an approximately 20% increase in biological activity when compared with peptide (1) and were equipotent to AII. In contrast, six analogues presented antagonistic activity. These results suggest that the position of the lactam bridge is more important than the bridge length or chirality for recognition of and binding to the angiotensin II AT1-receptor.
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