Angiotensin II (AII) is the active octapeptide product of the renin enzymatic cascade, which is responsible for sustaining blood pressure. In an attempt to establish the AII-receptor-bound conformation of this octapeptide, we designed conformationally constrained analogues by scanning the entire AII sequence with an i-(i + 2) and i-(i + 3) lactam bridge consisting of an Asp-(Xaa) n -Lys scaffold. Most analogues presented low agonistic activity when compared to AII in the different bioassays tested. The exceptions are cyclo(0-1a) [Asp 0 , endo-(Lys 1a)]-AII (1) and [Asp 0 , endo-(Lys 1a)]-AII (2), both of which showed activity similar to AII. Based on peptide 1 and the analogue cyclo(3–5)[Sar 1 , Asp 3 , Lys 5 ]-AII characterized by Matsoukas et al., we analyzed the agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, through a new monocyclic peptide series synthesized by using the following combinations of residues as bridgehead elements for the lactam bond formation: D-or L-Asp combined with D-or L-Lys or L-Glu combined with L-Orn. Six analogues showed an approximately 20% increase in biological activity when compared with peptide (1) and were equipotent to AII. In contrast, six analogues presented antagonistic activity. These results suggest that the position of the lactam bridge is more important than the bridge length or chirality for recognition of and binding to the angiotensin II AT1-receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aldosterone is well recognized as a cause of sodium reabsorption, water retention, and potassium and magnesium loss; however, it also produces a variety of other actions that lead to progressive target organ damage in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys. Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptors to promote endothelial dysfunction, facilitate thrombosis, reduce vascular compliance, impair baroreceptor function, and cause myocardial and vascular fibrosis. Although angiotensin II has been considered the major mediator of cardiovascular damage, increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone may mediate and exacerbate the damaging effects of angiotensin II. While angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce plasma aldosterone levels initially, aldosterone rebound, or 'escape' may occur during long-term therapy. Therefore, aldosterone blockade is required to reduce the risk of progressive target organ damage in patients with hypertension and heart failure. This may be achieved nonselectively with spironolactone or with use of the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone. While both agents have been demonstrated to be effective antihypertensive agents, eplerenone may produce improved target organ protection as witnessed in a variety of clinical settings, without the antiandrogenic and progestational effects commonly observed with spironolactone.
Cardiovascular Research 04/2004; 61(4):663-70. DOI:10.1016/j.cardiores.2003.11.037 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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