New hybrid membranes based on phosphonic acid functionalized silica particles for PEMFC
ABSTRACT This work concerns the development of hybrid organic/inorganic membranes from styrenic phosphonic polymers. The phosphonic charge, composed phosphonic polymers grafted onto silica nanoparticles, was obtained by “grafting onto” method. It consists of synthesizing first the polymer, and then the terminal functions of the latter react with silanol groups of silica. The phosphonated polymer was isolated in two steps, that is, an ATRP polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene followed by Mickaelïs-Arbusov reaction. After the grafting onto silica, membranes are prepared through formulation containing the charge and the polymer matrix PVDF-HFP, which are dispersed in DMF. The acid form is obtained by hydrolysis in chlorydric acid. The membrane possessing a 40 wt % charge ratio (IEC = 1.08 meq g−1) was selected as reference. A proton conductivity of 65 mS cm−1 at 80 °C was measured in immersed conditions. When the membrane is no more immersed, the value decreases drastically (0.21 mS cm−1 at 120 °C and 25% RH). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem, 2012
- Macromolecules. 11/2005; 38(26).
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ABSTRACT: Mechanically strong and flexible membranes with very high local concentrations of immobilized proton-conducting phosphonic acid have been achieved by grafting poly(vinylphosphonic acid) side chains onto polysulfones. The graft copolymers were prepared by anionic polymerization of diethyl vinylphosphonate initiated from lithiated polysulfones, followed by quantitative cleavage of the ester functions. The resulting phosphonic acid units acted like monoprotic acids to indicate a high level of intramolecular interactions, and the phase-separated nature of the copolymers was shown by dual glass transitions. Fully polymeric membranes were conveniently cast from solution and showed high proton conductivities, e.g., 5 mS/cm under nominally dry conditions at 120 °C and up to 93 mS/cm under 100% relative humidity at the same temperature. The corresponding conductivities measured for Nafion 115 under the same conditions were 0.04 and 105 mS/cm, respectively. The former membranes furthermore showed high thermal stability with decomposition temperatures exceeding 300 °C under air. Additions of 2−5 wt % of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer to the phosphonated membranes were found to reduce the water uptake significantly, thus improving the mechanical properties. The conductivity of these fully polymeric doped membranes was generally observed to be enhanced, or at least to remain at the same level, under both humidified and nominally dry conditions. The findings of this study demonstrate that phosphonated membranes with a proper macromolecular design may potentially show some important advantages in relation to the more commonly studied sulfonated membranes in fuel cell applications.Macromolecules. 05/2008; 41(11).
- Macromolecules 01/1996; 29(3):1079-1081. · 5.93 Impact Factor