First report of leaf rust on plum (Prunus cerasifera) by Tranzschelia pruni‐spinosa var. discolor in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey
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ABSTRACT: The host range specialization of Tranzschelia discolor (Fckl.) Tranz. & Litv. on stone fruits at the uredinial infection stage was investigated. Aeciospore inocula were collected from the alternate host, Anemone coronaria, at ten different locations of Aydın Province in early spring and were separately inoculated to 1–2-year-old nursery stocks of plum, peach, apricot, almond and sweet cherry under growth chamber conditions. Rust pustules developed only on plums, 15–21days after inoculations, but no infections occurred on the other stone fruits. Urediniospore inocula were collected from naturally infected plums, apricots, peaches and almonds and were inoculated to four host species as well as sweet cherry in a series of cross-inoculations. Rust pustules developed on plants of the respective original host species from which the urediniospore inoculum was collected. No morphological differences were found among teliospores and urediniospores of T. discolor sampled from the different stone fruit species. Results of this study indicate that there is host specialization of T. discolor on stone fruits at the uredinial infection stage. Aecial inoculum from anemones in Aydin Province was infectious only on plums. The alternate host for the other stone fruits in this province was not found. Keywords Anemone coronaria -Heteroecious rust fungus-Stone fruit rustPhytoparasitica 11/2010; 38(5):455-461. · 0.68 Impact Factor
, 257Doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00976.x
© 2004 BSPP
Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
NEW DISEASE REPORT
First report of leaf rust on plum (
Mediterranean region of Turkey
discolor in the eastern
S. Soylu*, E. M. Soylu and S. Kurt
Department of Plant Protection, University of Mustafa Kemal, Faculty of Agriculture, 31034 Hatay, Turkey
During the 2003 growing season, plum producers in
the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey encountered
defoliation of plum trees (
rust infections. Disease was observed in almost all plum
orchards in the region on leaves but not on fruit or twigs.
Early disease symptoms were observed in late May as
distinct angular bright-yellow lesions on the upper leaf
surface. As the disease progressed, light orange-brown
pustules (uredinia) bearing urediniospores were observed
in the centre of the lesion on the lower leaf surface. By
early September, leaf lesions turned dark brown as they
produced teliospores within rusty brown pustules.
Microscopic examination of pustules revealed clustered
uredinio- and teliospores. The single-celled urediniospores
m) were broadly fusiform or clavate
with a golden to cinnamon wall and markedly thickened
at the apex (5–7
m). Two-celled teliospores (25–39
m) were chestnut to blackish in colour. The
apical cell was darker, coarsely verrucose, globoid and
frequently showed wall thickening at the apex (3–5
basal cell was oblong or ovate, generally tapered towards
the base, smaller and lighter than the apical cell. The causal
agent was identified as
based on morphological characteristics (Laundon
& Rainbow, 1971) and distinguished from
on the basis of teliospore morphology
and host range (domestic rather than wild plum).
Pathogenicity tests were conducted on 1-year-old plum
(cv. Canerigi) nursery stock grown in a glasshouse at
), as a result of
ous suspension of urediniospores (10
lected from diseased leaves. After inoculation, the plants
were covered with a plastic bag for 48 h and kept in the
growth room at 22
C with a 16 h photoperiod. Within 5
weeks after inoculation, typical uredinia and urediniospores
developed on inoculated leaves.
This is the first report of plum rust on cultivated plum
in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Previous
plums in the USA (Bolkan
Bhardwaj, 2001) and Israel (Reuveni, 2000).
C. Plant leaves were inoculated by atomizing an aque-
., 1985), India (Sharma &
Bolkan HA, Ogawa JM, Michailides TJ, Kable PF, 1985.
Physiological specialization in
Laundon GF, Rainbow AF, 1971. Tranzschelia pruni-spinosa
. CMI Description of Pathogenic Fungi and
Bacteria, no. 287.
Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological
Reuveni M, 2000. Efficacy of trifloxystrobin (Flint), a new
strobilurin fungicide, in controlling powdery mildew on
apple, mango and nectarine, and rust on prune trees.
Sharma IM, Bhardwaj SS, 2001. Evaluation of plum cultivars
and fungicides against rust.
Plant Disease Research
Accepted 4 November 2003 at www.bspp.org.uk/ndr
where figures relating to this paper can be viewed.