Life satisfaction among rural Chinese grandparents: The roles of intergenerational family relationship and support exchange with grandchildren
ABSTRACT Xu L, Chi I. Life satisfaction among rural Chinese grandparents: the roles of intergenerational family relationship and support exchange with grandchildrenInt J Soc Welfare 2011: 20: S148–S159 © 2011 The Author(s), International Journal of Social Welfare © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the International Journal of Social Welfare.In this study, we examined how the life satisfaction of rural Chinese grandparents is affected by their intergenerational family relationship and support exchange with grandchildren. The study sample consisted of 9,704 grandparents aged 60 and older from the 2000 “Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China.” Demographic variables, including health variables, support exchange with children, intergenerational family relationship, and support exchange with grandchildren, were entered hierarchically into four regression models to examine the effects of these variables on grandparents' life satisfaction. Results showed that rural grandparents who perceive their children as filial or their family as harmonious, or who receive instrumental support as well as less monetary support from their grandchildren, are more likely to have higher levels of life satisfaction. In addition, rural grandparents who are older, experience lower levels of financial strain, have better health, provide instrumental support to children, and receive greater monetary support from their children, are more likely to report higher levels of life satisfaction.
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- "Traditional family arrangements are beneficial in rural Chinese society because they indicate an achievement of a cultural ideal . Some studies have also proved that rural grandparents who perceive their children as filial or their family as harmonious, those who receive instrumental support and less monetary support from their grandchildren are likely to have higher levels of life satisfaction or well-being than those who do not [65,66]. The loneliness felt by older adults is even reduced by the affection for and from their children, and perceptions of attachment to their children increase their psychological well-being . "
ABSTRACT: Along with rapid economic development, the aging process in China is gradually accelerating. The living conditions of empty-nest rural elderly are worrisome. As a more vulnerable group, empty-nest elderly are facing more urgent health problems. This study explores the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of empty-nest elderly in rural China and aims to arouse more social concern for their HRQOL. Research subjects were empty-nest rural elderly from three cities: Nanjing, Suzhou, and Wenzhou (ages >= 60, n = 967). This study used the five-dimensional European quality of health scale (EQ-5D) and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure the HRQOL of the respondents. Spearman correlation coefficient, stereotype logistic regression, ordered probit regression and multinomial logistic regression, and Structural equation model (SEM) methods are employed to study the relationship. (1) The Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the correlations of similar domains between the SF-12 and the EQ-5D scales are relatively strong. (2) Men's scores are higher than that of women's in general health (GH) and anxiety/depression (AD) models. (3) The scores of physical component summary (PCS), physical functioning (PF), mental health (MH), and usual activities (UA) decline with age. (4) Apart from PCS, vitality (VT), and role-emotional (RE) as dependent variables, the education passes all the significance tests. The higher the education is, the higher the scores of physical or psychological health are. (5) The scores of PCS and bodily pain (BP) of empty-nest elderly are divorced or higher in other marital status. (6) In SEM analysis, the effect of basic information of empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scale is more significant. First, the frequency histograms of EQ-5D show that the scores of empty-nest elderly in rural China are generally low. Second, in all SF-12 items, the HRQOL is low. Third, men's scores are higher than that of women's. The elderly with higher education reported higher scores than those with lower education. Fourth, the effect of socio-demographic variables of the rural Chinese empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scores is more significant, whereas the effect on EQ-5D scores is less significant.Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 04/2014; 12(1):59. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-12-59 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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- "Theoretically, family capital, which refers to social resources embedded in one's relationships with other family members, should include social resources from intergenerational interactions (Coleman, 1988; Furstenberg & Kaplan, 2004). With longer life expectancy and better health, older adults are more likely to assume grandparent roles for longer and to care for and mentor their grandchildren (Marshall & Bengtson, 2011; United Nations Development Program, 2010; Xu & Chi, 2011). Empirically, previous studies found that interactions beyond parent and adult child relationships were able to generate meaning of life in late adulthood (Lou, 2011; Suitor, Sechrist, Gilligan, & Pillemer, 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study tested the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults and the mediating role of the grandparent-parent relationship in terms of grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health. Methods: Data were derived from a random sample of 1,027 adults aged 60 and older who were interviewed in the rural Chaohu region in 2009. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital in terms of relations with the first child's family on self-rated health among respondents, as well as the mediating effect of the grandparent-parent relationship. Results: The results showed the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital on self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults. The grandparent-parent relationship had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of respondents. Discussion: Grandparent-grandchild family capital had a unique direct effect on the self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, enriching our theoretical understanding of sources of family capital and their impacts in a collectivist cultural context that emphasizes intergenerational interaction and exchange. The findings also highlighted the mediation effects of grandparent-parent relationships on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, supporting the "grandchild-as-linkage" hypothesis in understanding the social determination of self-rated health in China.The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 06/2013; 68(4). DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbt040 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study analysed happiness and several domains of life of Mayan people in the poor rural areas of Yucatan, Mexico. Using a sample of 373 households, we examined the influence of income on happiness and its domains, obtaining results that lend support to the ‘paradox of happy peasants and miserable millionaires’. According to the results, income influences happiness among the Mayan people, as do material domains and health, but income does not influence the domains related to intangible feelings and public goods. A number of reasons, such as a lack of a means for comparison, close contact with nature, adaptation to deprivation, general material improvements compared with the past, low aspirations and a Mayan culture that is devoted to solidarity and enjoyment of social relationships, could explain why the sample population reported high levels of happiness. Although the Mayans’ level of happiness is high, their situation nevertheless requires political attention.International Journal of Social Welfare 01/2013; 22(1):35-44. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2397.2011.00857.x · 0.54 Impact Factor