Life satisfaction among rural Chinese grandparents: the roles of intergenerational family relationship and support exchange with grandchildren
ABSTRACT Xu L, Chi I. Life satisfaction among rural Chinese grandparents: the roles of intergenerational family relationship and support exchange with grandchildrenInt J Soc Welfare 2011: 20: S148–S159 © 2011 The Author(s), International Journal of Social Welfare © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the International Journal of Social Welfare.In this study, we examined how the life satisfaction of rural Chinese grandparents is affected by their intergenerational family relationship and support exchange with grandchildren. The study sample consisted of 9,704 grandparents aged 60 and older from the 2000 “Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China.” Demographic variables, including health variables, support exchange with children, intergenerational family relationship, and support exchange with grandchildren, were entered hierarchically into four regression models to examine the effects of these variables on grandparents' life satisfaction. Results showed that rural grandparents who perceive their children as filial or their family as harmonious, or who receive instrumental support as well as less monetary support from their grandchildren, are more likely to have higher levels of life satisfaction. In addition, rural grandparents who are older, experience lower levels of financial strain, have better health, provide instrumental support to children, and receive greater monetary support from their children, are more likely to report higher levels of life satisfaction.
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ABSTRACT: This study analysed happiness and several domains of life of Mayan people in the poor rural areas of Yucatan, Mexico. Using a sample of 373 households, we examined the influence of income on happiness and its domains, obtaining results that lend support to the ‘paradox of happy peasants and miserable millionaires’. According to the results, income influences happiness among the Mayan people, as do material domains and health, but income does not influence the domains related to intangible feelings and public goods. A number of reasons, such as a lack of a means for comparison, close contact with nature, adaptation to deprivation, general material improvements compared with the past, low aspirations and a Mayan culture that is devoted to solidarity and enjoyment of social relationships, could explain why the sample population reported high levels of happiness. Although the Mayans’ level of happiness is high, their situation nevertheless requires political attention.International Journal of Social Welfare 01/2013; 22(1):35-44. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2397.2011.00857.x · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Life satisfaction research in China is in development, requiring new perspectives for enrichment. In China, occupational mobility is accompanied by changes in economic liberalization and the emergence of occupational stratification. On the whole, however, occupational mobility has rarely been used as an independent variable. Health status is always used as the observed or dependent variable in studies of the phenomenon and its influencing factors. A research gap still exists for enriching this field. The data used in this study were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The study included nine provinces in China. The survey was conducted from 1989 to 2009.Every survey involved approximately 4400 families or 19,000 individual samples and parts of community data. First, we built a 5 x 5 social mobility table and calculated life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations in each table. Second, gender, age, marital status, education level, annual income and hukou, health status, occupational mobility, and occupational mobility distance were used as independent variables. Lastly, we used logistic diagonal mobility models to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and the variables. Model 1 was the basic model, which consisted of the standard model and controlled variables and excluded drift variables. Model 2 was the total model, which consisted of all variables of interest in this study. Model 3 was the screening model, which excluded the insignificant drift effect index in Model 2. First, an analysis of the controlled variables revealed that (1) rural samples had greater life satisfaction than urban samples, (2) older people had greater life satisfaction, (3) high school graduates had greater life satisfaction than university graduates, who had greater life satisfaction than secondary school graduates, (4) and divorced or widowed people had less life satisfaction. Second, the analysis variables indicated that health conditions and the direction and distance of occupational mobility significantly affected life satisfaction. (1) Respondents who had not been sick or hurt had greater life satisfaction than those who had. (2) The coefficients of occupational mobility in the models were less than 0, indicating that upward mobility negatively affected life satisfaction. (3) The greater the distance indicated, the greater the life satisfaction.International Journal for Equity in Health 02/2014; 13(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1475-9276-13-15 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Along with rapid economic development, the aging process in China is gradually accelerating. The living conditions of empty-nest rural elderly are worrisome. As a more vulnerable group, empty-nest elderly are facing more urgent health problems. This study explores the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of empty-nest elderly in rural China and aims to arouse more social concern for their HRQOL. Research subjects were empty-nest rural elderly from three cities: Nanjing, Suzhou, and Wenzhou (ages >= 60, n = 967). This study used the five-dimensional European quality of health scale (EQ-5D) and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure the HRQOL of the respondents. Spearman correlation coefficient, stereotype logistic regression, ordered probit regression and multinomial logistic regression, and Structural equation model (SEM) methods are employed to study the relationship. (1) The Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the correlations of similar domains between the SF-12 and the EQ-5D scales are relatively strong. (2) Men's scores are higher than that of women's in general health (GH) and anxiety/depression (AD) models. (3) The scores of physical component summary (PCS), physical functioning (PF), mental health (MH), and usual activities (UA) decline with age. (4) Apart from PCS, vitality (VT), and role-emotional (RE) as dependent variables, the education passes all the significance tests. The higher the education is, the higher the scores of physical or psychological health are. (5) The scores of PCS and bodily pain (BP) of empty-nest elderly are divorced or higher in other marital status. (6) In SEM analysis, the effect of basic information of empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scale is more significant. First, the frequency histograms of EQ-5D show that the scores of empty-nest elderly in rural China are generally low. Second, in all SF-12 items, the HRQOL is low. Third, men's scores are higher than that of women's. The elderly with higher education reported higher scores than those with lower education. Fourth, the effect of socio-demographic variables of the rural Chinese empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scores is more significant, whereas the effect on EQ-5D scores is less significant.Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 04/2014; 12(1):59. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-12-59 · 2.10 Impact Factor