Grafting of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene: Synthesis and characterization
ABSTRACT Isotactic polypropylene was grafted with maleic anhydride using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and toluene as a solvent. Effects of various parameters such as monomer and initiator concentration, reaction time, and reaction temperature on percentage grafting were studied. Effect of various solvents on extent of grafting was also studied. The maximum extent of grafting achieved was 5.3%. The graft copolymers were characterized by i.r., thermal, viscometric, and contact angle studies. Improved thermal stability and decreased intrinsic viscosity and critical surface tension were observed for graft copolymers. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- SourceAvailable from: Zakir M.O. Rzayev
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- "They have presented a detailed kinetic model for grafting processes in a reactor and twin-screw extruder systems. For the evaluation of grafting mechanism, functionalization of PP with MA have been carried out both in solution       and in the molten state        using various extruder systems. Taking into the consideration low costs and operating facility, such grafting reactions were preferably carried out in the melt via reactive processing. "
ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years outlining the different methods of grafting, including reactive extruder systems, surface modification, grafting and graft copolymerization of synthetic and natural polymers with maleic anhydride and its isostructural analogues such as maleimides and maleates, and anhydrides, esters and imides of citraconic and itaconic acids, derivatives of fumaric acid, etc. Special attention is spared to the grafting of conventional and non-conventional synthetic and natural polymers, including biodegradable polymers, mechanism of grafting and graft copolymerization, in situ grafting reactions in melt by reactive extrusion systems, in solutions and solid state (photo- and plasma-induced graftings), and H-bonding effect in the reactive blend processing. The structural phenomena, unique properties and application areas of these copolymers and their various modifications and composites as high performance engineering materials have been also described.
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- "These processes are usually carried out in the presence of organic peroxide and can be conducted in the solid state, in the melt, or in the solution. Sathe, et al. (1994) synthesized PP-g-MA by solution process using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator in toluene. They reported that the maximum extent of grafting achieved was 5.3%. "
ABSTRACT: In this work, polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) prepared by solution process was used as a compatibilizer for polypropylene (PP)/polyamide 6 (PA6) blends. PP with melt flow index (MFI) of 10 g/10 min was grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator and toluene as a solvent. The effects of BPO and MA concentration on the grafting degree of MA onto PP were studied. The grafting degree was determined by a back-titration procedure whereas the formation of graft copolymers was confirmed by FT-IR technique. It was found that the maximum extent of grafting achieved was 0.87%. Blend of PP (MFI of 25 g/10 min) and PA6 with weight ratio of 70/30 was prepared by twin screw extruder. The prepared PP-g-MA (0.87% grafting) was used as a compatibilizer at the amount of 5 and 10 parts per hundred of the blend. The testing specimens were prepared by injection molding machine. The results showed that the tensile strength of the compatibilized blends was substantially higher than that of the uncompatibilized blend whereas percent elongation and Young's modulus were comparable. Morphology of the blends investigated by SEM technique disclosed that the compatibilized blends exhibited a remarkable decrease in size of the dispersed domain. TGA and DSC were employed to investigate thermal behaviors of the blends. PP-g-MA had a slight influence on the thermal stability of the blends. The crystallization rate of PP in the blends was higher than that of the neat PP. On the contrary, the presence of PP reduced the crystallization rate of PA6 in the blends. Key word : PP-g-MA, solution process, compatibilizer, polypropylene, polyamide 6
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ABSTRACT: Graft copolymers of acrylonitrile (ACN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and their mixtures on carboxy methyl cellulose (d.S 0.4–0.5) were prepared by the use of ceric ion initiator in aqueous medium. The graft copolymers were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The extent of graft copolymerization of ACN and MMA was measured in terms of graft level, molecular weight of grafted polymer chains, and the frequency of grafting as functions of ceric ion concentration. It was found that at comparable reaction conditions, the molecular weight of the grafted polymer chains and the frequency of grafting were not of the same order of magnitude. For the monomer mixtures, the copolymer compositions obtained from the total nitrogen contents of the copolymer samples showed that a disproportionately low amount of ACN monomeric units were incorporated into the graft copolymer, even at high ACN content of the feed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Journal of Applied Polymer Science 02/1996; 59(6):981 - 986. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19960207)59:6<981::AID-APP11>3.0.CO;2-Q · 1.64 Impact Factor