Water and sediment ecotoxicity studies in Temuco and Rapel River Basin, Chile
ABSTRACT Five samples were collected from the Rapel River Basin near the city of Rancagua and three from the city of Temuco. Three of the samples were collected from raw drinking water supplies. The following bioassays were performed on some or all of the samples: Microtox; Microtox solid phase test; SOS-Chromotest with and without S9; Toxi-Chromotest; Sediment-Chromotest; Panagrellus redivivus percent survival and percent maturation; submitochondrial reverse electron transfer and forward electron transfer tests; Daphnia magna 24 h acute toxicity; ECHA biocide monitor, and the competitive immunoassay tests for benomyl, metolachlor, atrazine, and triazines. All the sampling sites were positive for the presence of genotoxicants requiring S9 activation while three sites also indicated the presence of direct-acting genotoxicants/mutagens (−S9). Also, all the sites were positive for the presence of pesticides. In some samples there was 100% inhibition of P. redivivus maturation. Details and discussion on the implication of the results are presented. © 1996 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Two different forest industry wastewater sludges were composted in piles. The piles were founded with leachate collection systems. The aim was to study the progress of the composting process, the amount and quality of leachates as well as the toxicity of the sludges and leachates. The sludges consisted of mixtures of primary and biosludge. The piles were monitored for eight months by physical measurements, chemical analyses and toxicity tests. The leachates were collected for six months. The lignin concentrations and the amount of mycelium were measured from the sludges and from the soil. Test plots and control plots were established to a field with different amounts of composted sludge in order to study the applicability of the sludges in agriculture. The results showed that both sludges were amenable to composting. The original sludges were toxic but the toxicity decreased during composting and all the sludges were proved to be non- toxic at the end of composting. The leachates were determined non-toxic and the heavy metal concentrations were low in both sludges and leachates. The sludges proved to be suitable for use as soil improver in agricultural plant production. Keywords Agricultural use; composting; pulp and paper industry; toxicity; wastewater sludges
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ABSTRACT: The feasibility of composting of pulp and paper industry sludges was studied. The aim was to study the progress of the composting process and the toxicity and applicability of the sludges in agriculture. Five different sludges were used: two biosludges and three biosludge and primary sludge mixtures. The sludges were composted in seven piles, two smaller of them founded with leachates collection systems. The piles were monitored throughout the composting period by physical measurements, chemical analyses and toxicity tests. Also the lignin concentrations were measured from the sludges and from the soil as well as the amount of mycelium.The results showed that all sludges were easily composted and they will be suitable for the use as soil improvement in agricultural plant production. Toxicity of the sludges decreased during composting and all the sludges were proved to be non-toxic at the end of the composting. Heavy metal concentrations were low in all sludges and leachates. The leachates were also non-toxic and the concentrations of nutrients were low.Water Science & Technology 01/1999; 40(s 11–12):187–194. DOI:10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00717-9 · 1.21 Impact Factor