Notes on the Fishery Potential and Fish Fauna of the Brokopondo Reservoir (Surinam)

Aquaculture Research (Impact Factor: 1.42). 04/2008; 11(3):119 - 130. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.1980.tb00819.x

ABSTRACT The Brokopondo reservoir is situated in north-east Surinam and has a surface area of 150,000 ha. The dam was completed in 1964 for providing hydroelectric power. During the filling stage of the reservoir. 1964–1967, the composition of the fish fauna was studied. From 1967 to the present, no fishery research has been carried out in the reservoir. The aim of a mission, which was conducted in December 1978, was to obtain fundamental information on the fishery potential and fish fauna. Thirty-seven species have been collected with various fishing techniques; of these the characid Serrasalmus rhambeus (Linnaeus, 1766) and the cichlid Cichla ocellaris Block & Schneider, 1801 are possibly exploitable. The potential yeild of the reservoir is estimated at 3500 tonne yr-1. Gill nets with large mesh sizes proved to give the best results of the different fishery techniques tried. A comparison of the recent ichthyofauna with the fish species composition during 1966–1967 is provided and discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated long-term changes in the fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, the first large reservoir (1560 km2) that was created in tropical rainforest. Before closure of the dam in 1964, the fish fauna of Suriname River had 172 species, high diversity and high evenness. The riverine fauna was dominated by small-sized species, but no single species was dominant in numbers. Large catfishes were dominant in biomass. Species were evenly distributed over riverine habitats: rapids, tributaries and main channel. Four years after closure of the dam, only 62 fish species were collected from Brokopondo Reservoir, but the composition of the fish fauna was still changing. The reservoir fauna in 1978 was very similar to the reservoir fauna in 2005, indicating that a stable equilibrium had been reached 14 years after closure of the dam. The reservoir fauna had 41 species, low diversity and low evenness. Most species of Suriname River and its tributaries with strict habitat requirements did not survive in Brokopondo Reservoir. Fish community structure was different among four habitats of Brokopondo Reservoir. The open-water habitat (10 species) was dominated by the piscivores Serrasalmus rhombeus, Acestrorhynchus microlepis and Cichla ocellaris and their prey Bryconops melanurus and two Hemiodus species. B. melanurus fed on zooplankton, Culicinae pupae and terrestrial invertebrates. Hemiodus fed on fine flocculent detritus, demonstrating that the detritus-based food chain was still important in late stages of reservoir development. Serrasalmus rhombeus also fed on peccaries that drowned when swimming across the large reservoir in rough weather. The shore community (27 species) was dominated by seven cichlids, but early stages and juveniles of the open-water species S. rhombeus and B. melanurus also occurred in the shore habitat. Fish biomass in the shore habitat was 66.5±59.9 kg ha-1. The cichlid Geophagus surinamensis and the characid B. melanurus had a lower biomass in Brokopondo Reservoir than in Suriname River. Serrasalmus rhombeus showed reduced body length in Brokopondo Reservoir as compared to riverine populations.
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