Article

Direct and Residual Effect of Different Organic Fertilizers on Potato and Cereals

Department of Ecology and Agrochemistry, Estonian University of Agriculture, Viljandi Road, Eerika, Tartu-EE2400, Estonia
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science (Impact Factor: 2.62). 04/2008; 171(3):185 - 195. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-037X.1993.tb00130.x

ABSTRACT Field experiment with 8 different organic fertilizers (cattle dung with and without litter, pig slurry, peat compost formed from hen and pig slurry, sawdust-duck manure, noncomposted peat and straw litter with pig slurry) was carried out on loamy brown podzoluvisol since 1985.The organic fertilizers were applied in the spring of 1985 on two backgrounds: with and without mineral fertilizers. The material is based on the data of four years (1985–1988). The arrangement of crops was the following: potato, spring wheat, barley and early barley.On both backgrounds cattle dung with litter turned out to be the best organic fertilizer, while noncomposted peat manure had a low direct and residual effect. However, before the application it must be composted with pig or hen slurry. The effect of peat composts was dependent on the background of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry had a low residual effect and acted only as a liquid nitrogen fertilizer. The joint application of straw and pig slurry can be a suitable opportunity for diminishing their undesirable effects.ZusammenfassungDie Haupt-und Nachwirkung verschiedener organischer Düngung für Kartoffel und GetreideUnser Feldversuch mit acht verschiedenen organischen Düngern war im Frühling 1985 auf lehmiger Parabraunerde angelegt worden. Es wurden 8 verschiedene Dünger verwendet: Rindermist mit und ohne Einstreu, Torfkomposte mit Schweinegülle und Hühnerkot, Schweinegülle, Niedermoortorf, Geflügelkot auf Sägemehl und Stroh. Organische Dünger ohne und mit Mineraldünger werden verglichen. Als wichtige Einflußgröße für den Düngungswert kommt der Wassergehalt in Betracht, deshalb ist die Bezugnahme auf einen gleichhohen Trockensubstanzgehalt für die Düngungsmengen zweckmäßig. Er beträgt 12, 24, 36 t/ha, nur Schweinegülle und Stroh stehen außerhalb dieser Normen.Die vierjährige Fruchtfolge besteht aus Kartoffeln mit folgenden drei Getreidearten. Organische Düngung wurde vor der Kartoffel eingepflügt und nachher drei Jahre lang die Nachwirkung geprüft.Das Hauptkriterium der Düngungseffektivität ist hier pflanzlicher Ertrag nach Menge und Qualität. Daneben wurden bodenchemische und einige bodenphysikalische und mikrobiologische Untersuchungen laufend durchgeführt.Die unterschiedlichen Formen der organischen Düngung müssen jeweils mit der Mineraldüngung im Düngungssystem optimiert werden, urn eine hohe Ackerkultur zu erreichen.Unsere Versuchsresultate bestätigen, daß 4–6 t organischer Trockensubstanz per Hektar pro Jahr ausreichend sind, wenn man die pflanzenbaulichen und die Bodenfruchtbarkeit betreffenden Forderungen berücksichtigt.Die Versuchsergebnisse zeigen, daß zuverlässige und stabile Mehrerträge während der vierjährigen Periode mit den Rindermistvarianten erzielt werden konnten.Schweinegülle dagegen wirkt in erster Linie als flüssiger Stickstoffdünger, dessen Wirkung auf den Ertrag sich bereits in den ersten zwei Jahren erschöpft.Natürlicher Torf, der den Kompostierungsprozeß mit anderen nährstoffreichen Substanzen nicht durchlaufen hat, kann die nötigen Elemente für die Kulturpflanzen nicht liefern.Zur Bereicherung passen Hühner oder Schweinegülle, aber hier hängt die Qualität zum großen Teil von der Mischungshomogenität ab.Strohdüngung hat eine direkte positive Wirkung schon im Anwendungsjahr, weil die Schweinegüllemenge und die aus letzterer bedingte mineralische Stickstoffmenge größer war als die Immobilisierungsstickstoffmenge. Jedoch ergibt sich aus den Strohdüngungs resultaten eine Erhöhungstendenz auf den Pflanzenertrag im zweiten bzw. dritten Nachwirkungsjahr.

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