Synthesis and properties of Polycaprolactone‐graft‐poly(2‐(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate‐co‐methoxy polyethylene glycol monomethacrylate) as non‐viral gene vector
ABSTRACT Polycaprolactone-graft-Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-methoxy polyethylene glycol monomethacrylate) (PCL-graft-P(DMAEMA-co-mPEGMMA)) was synthesized by combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). PCL-graft-P(DMAEMA-co-mPEGMMA) was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and GPC. PCL-graft-P(DMAEMA-co-mPEGMMA) with expected composition and structure was achieved. pH- and thermo-sensitive properties of the PCL-graft-P(DMAEMA-co-mPEGMMA) nanoparticles prepared by the nanoprecipitation method were investigated by TEM and DLS. With increase in the temperature, the size of PCL-graft-P(DMAEMA-co-mPEGMMA) nanoparticles is decreased under base environment. Furthermore, in vitro transfection and toxicity assays were tested in 293T cells. The results indicate that PCL-graft-P(DMAEMA-co-PEGMMA) has lower cytotoxicity at N/P ratios less than 10 with transfection efficiency concomitantly reducing at N/P ratios less than 20 compared to PCL-graft-PDMAEMA as the control. However, PCL-graft-P(DMAEMA-co-PEGMMA) presents higher transfection efficiency at N/P ratios more than 20 compared to PCL-graft-PDMAEMA. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of research was to develop and optimize delivery systems for plasmid DNA (pDNA) based on biodegradable polymers, in particular, poly(ester amine)s (PEAs), suitable for non-viral gene therapy. Poly(ester amine)s were successfully synthesized by Michael addition reaction between polycaprolactone (PCL) diacrylate and low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI). PEA/DNA complexes showed effective and stable DNA condensation with the particle sizes below 200nm, implicating its potential for intracellular delivery. PEAs showed controlled degradation and were essentially non-toxic in all three cells (293T: Human kidney carcinoma, HepG2: Human hepatoblastoma and HeLa: Human cervix epithelial carcinoma cell lines) at higher doses in contrast to PEI 25K. PEAs also revealed much higher transfection efficiencies in three cell lines as compared to PEI 25K. The highest reporter gene expression was observed for PCL/PEI-1.2 (MW 1200) complex having transfection efficiency 15-25 folds higher than PEI 25K in vitro. Also PEA/DNA complexes successfully transfected cells in vivo after aerosol administration than PEI 25K. These PEAs can be used as most efficient polymeric vectors which provide a versatile platform for further investigation of structure property relationship along with the controlled degradation, significant low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency.Biomaterials 03/2007; 28(4):735-44. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study communicates the molecular design, preparation, and biological application of novel symmetric amphiphilic polycationic dendritic poly(L-lysine)-b-poly(L-lactide)-b-dendritic poly(L-lysine) D2-LLA15-D2 bearing two two-generation poly(L-lysine) PLL dendrons D2 and a central hydrophobic biodegradable poly(L-lactide) block LLA15. First, an amino-protected precursor of L1-OH was designed and synthesized and was further employed to prepare L1-LLA15 with an organic 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine-mediated living-ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. Subsequently, the hydroxy end-capped L1-LLA15 was coupled to synthesize a new triblock L1-LLA15-L1 with two one-generation amino-protected PLL dendrons L1. Furthermore, with a repeated trifluoroacetic-acid-mediated amino deprotection-protection cycle, new amphiphilic triblock D2-LLA15-D2 was successfully prepared. By means of NMR, mass spectrometry, and gel permeation chromatography, these synthetic precursors and final amphiphilic product were characterized to bear well-defined triblock structures. In addition, this synthesized amphiphilic triblock polycationic macromolecule was applied as a new polycationic plasmid DNA carrier, and its DNA binding affinity was examined via an agarose electrophoresis and a fluorescence titration assay along with two important references of hydrophilic dendritic D2-HEX-D2 and double-hydrophilic D2-PEG-4K-D2 bearing the same two D2 dendrons; much enhanced DNA binding affinity was interestingly revealed for the new amphiphilic structural D2-LLA15-D2. Moreover, the assembled polyplex microparticles of plasmid DNA/polycationic carrier were further analyzed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, indicating their averaged nanoparticle size around 150-200 nm. As for the cytotoxicity of the new D2-LLA15-D2, MTT assays were conducted with a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SMMC-7721), indicating a very low cytotoxicity as compared with commercial linear PLL-23K and PEI-2K, and a DNase I degradation of the assembled polyplex particles was also done in the HBS buffer solution to evaluate their stabilities. Finally, employing the new amphiphilic D2-LLA15-D2 as gene carrier, in vitro gene transfection experiments were conducted with the SMMC-7721 cell line, indicating a transfection efficiency increase of at least 10 times higher than that of the naked plasmid DNA under a N/P charge ratio of 10. Therefore, these interesting results may provide a new possible way to construct efficient polycationic macromolecular gene carriers with low toxicity and less expensive low-generation PLL dendrons.Biomacromolecules 06/2007; 8(5):1409-16. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly(β-aminoesters) 1−3 were synthesized via the addition of N,N‘-dimethylethylenediamine, piperazine, and 4,4‘-trimethylenedipiperidine to 1,4-butanediol diacrylate. Polymerization proceeded exclusively via the conjugate addition of the secondary amines to the bis(acrylate ester). Polymers were isolated in up to 86% yields with molecular weights ranging up to 31 200 relative to polystyrene standards. The polymers degraded hydrolytically in acidic and alkaline media to yield 1,4-butanediol and β-amino acids 4a−6a and the degradation kinetics were investigated at pH 5.1 and 7.4. In general, the polymers degraded more rapidly at pH 7.4 than at pH 5.1. In initial screening assays, both the polymers and their degradation products were determined to be noncytotoxic relative to poly(ethylene imine), a polymer conventionally employed as a synthetic transfection vector. Polymers 1−3 interacted electrostatically with polyanionic plasmid DNA in water and buffer at physiological pH, as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, quasi-elastic dynamic light scattering (QELS), and ζ-potential measurements. All three polymers condensed DNA into soluble DNA/polymer particles on the order of 50−200 nm. Particles formed from polymers 1 and 2 aggregated extensively, while particles formed from polymer 3 exhibited positive ζ-potentials (e.g., +10 to +15 mV) and did not aggregate for up to 18 h. The nanometer-sized dimensions and reduced cytotoxicities of these DNA/polymer complexes suggest that these types of polymers may be useful as degradable polymeric gene transfer vectors.Journal of The American Chemical Society - J AM CHEM SOC. 10/2000; 122(44).