Early smoking onset may promise initial pleasurable sensations and later addiction
ABSTRACT There is converging evidence suggesting a particular susceptibility to the addictive properties of nicotine among adolescents. The aim of the current study was to prospectively ascertain the relationship between age at first cigarette and initial smoking experiences, and to examine the combined effects of these characteristics of adolescent smoking behavior on adult smoking. It was hypothesized that the association between earlier age at first cigarette and later development of nicotine dependence may, at least in part, be attributable to differences in experiencing pleasurable early smoking sensations. Data were drawn from the participants of the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. Structured interviews at age 15, 19 and 22 years were conducted to assess the age at first cigarette, early smoking experiences and current smoking behavior in 213 young adults. In addition, the participants completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Adolescents who smoked their first cigarette at an earlier age reported more pleasurable sensations from the cigarette, and they were more likely to be regular smokers at age 22. The age at first cigarette also predicted the number of cigarettes smoked and dependence at age 22. Thus, both the age of first cigarette and the pleasure experienced from the cigarette independently predicted aspects of smoking at age 22.
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ABSTRACT: Understanding the developmental changes in protective factors that lead to healthy youth development provides important information on the appropriate timing and targets for community-based prevention. This study used a control sample of 2002 individuals from 7 states to examine the normative development of protective factors. Data come from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized trial of Communities That Care. Multilevel models estimated the change in protective factors from 5th to 12th grade, controlling for individual characteristics. Gender difference and school transitions were examined. Findings suggest that most protective factors decline through middle school but start increasing during high school, with some declining at slower rates than in middle school. Although females reported higher levels of protective factors than males, the transitional point did not differ by gender. Community initiatives that seek to bolster protective factors should start early and continue through high school.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.appdev.2015.04.006 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cholinergic system underlies both adaptive (learning and memory) and nonadaptive (addiction and dependency) behavioral changes through its ability to shape and regulate plasticity. Protein modulators such as lynx family members can fine tune the activity of the cholinergic system and contribute to the graded response of the cholinergic system, stabilizing neural circuitry through direct interaction with nicotinic receptors. Release of this molecular brake can unmask cholinergic-dependent mechanisms in the brain. Lynx proteins have the potential to provide top-down control over plasticity mechanisms, including addictive propensity. If this is indeed the case, then, what regulates the regulator? Transcriptional changes of lynx genes in response to pharmacological, physiological, and pathological alterations are explored in this review.Physiology 08/2012; 27(4):187-99. DOI:10.1152/physiol.00002.2012 · 5.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimsTo examine the interrelationships between cigarette consumption and DSM-IV nicotine dependence (ND) criteria from smoking onset in adolescence up to seven years later, adjusting for alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) criteria.DesignA cohort drawn from grades 6-10 in an urban school system was interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and 4.5 years later (Wave 6). A parent was interviewed three times.SettingChicago, Illinois.ParticipantsRecent smokers (n=409).MeasurementsStructured household interviews ascertained number of cigarettes smoked, DSM-IV ND symptoms, drinks consumed, DSM-IV AD symptoms, and selected covariates.AnalysisReciprocal prospective associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria, controlling for time-varying alcohol consumption and dependence criteria, were examined with cross-lagged models.FindingsReciprocal associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria were both significant. Cigarette consumption had stronger associations with later ND (β=0.25, 95% CI=0.17-0.32) than dependence had with later cigarette consumption (β=0.09, 95% CI=0.01-0.16). Alcohol and cigarette consumption influenced each other; AD scores were associated with later ND scores but not the reverse. Reports of pleasant initial experiences from smoking were positively associated with cigarette consumption and ND the first year after smoking onset; later smoking onset was negatively associated with cigarette consumption the seventh year after onset; parental ND predicted cigarette consumption and ND throughout.Conclusions In adolescent smokers, higher cigarette consumption predicts later severity of DSM-IV nicotine dependence more than the reverse. Smoking and drinking also influence each other mutually over time.Addiction 05/2014; 109(9). DOI:10.1111/add.12619 · 4.60 Impact Factor