Screening for resistance of Allium species to Sclerotium cepivorum with special reference to non‐stimulatory resistance

Lchrstuhl für Phytopathologie der TU München-Weihenstephan, 8050 Freising 12, Germany
Plant Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.97). 04/2007; 41(3):308 - 316. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.1992.tb02352.x

ABSTRACT Approximately 150 seed lots of Allium cepa and more than 30 different Allium species were tested in the greenhouse under strictly controlled conditions against Sclerotium cepivorum, the causal fungus of Allium white rot disease. The quantity and quality of the inoculum was determined using a simple and rapid test to achieve a high degree of standardization. Only the A. cepa cultivar “Sweet Sandwich’ and A. porrum, A. rotundum, A. sphaerocephalon and two further unidentified Allium species showed significantly lower disease incidence than the cultivar ‘Golden Bear’. The stimulatory effect of the root exudates on sclerotial germination was compared with that of diallyl sulphide. With the exception of A. species‘PI 249549′, extracts of all species that showed low levels of disease incidence in the greenhouse test stimulated sclerotial germination only weakly.

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    ABSTRACT: Two isolates of Trichoderma viride (L4 and S17A) were assessed for biological control of Allium white rot (AWR) with different onion accessions and cultivars, alone and in combination with a tebuconazole-based seed treatment or composted onion waste. In glasshouse tests, 23 new bulb-onion accessions from previous work to detect resistance to Sclerotium cepivorum showed no differences in susceptibility to AWR but, when combined with S17A, disease was reduced by up to two-thirds over all accessions. Trichoderma viride L4 and S17A also reduced the proportion of infected plants for five commercial bulb-onion cultivars and one advanced breeding line by at least one-third. Further glasshouse tests using a salad-onion cultivar showed that L4, S17A, tebuconazole or composted onion waste controlled AWR and at least halved the proportion of diseased plants. Combination treatments of T. viride with either tebuconazole or compost enhanced control and, in some treatments, disease was almost eliminated. In field trials, control of AWR by S17A was significant for 17 out of 18 individual or mixed bulb-onion accessions, with disease reduced overall by more than half. In another field experiment, S17A failed significantly to reduce AWR for two out of three commercial bulb-onion cultivars, while tebuconazole reduced the final proportion of AWR-infected plants over all cultivars from 0·47 to 0·09. Combining S17A and tebuconazole resulted in a similar level of AWR to using tebuconazole alone. The use of T. viride in an integrated strategy with other treatments to enhance control of S. cepivorum is discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory assays demonstrated that two isolates of Trichoderma viride and one isolate of Trichoderma pseudokoningii degraded up to 80% of sclerotia of four isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum in a silty clay soil, and also degraded up to 60% of sclerotia in three other soil types. Relationships were defined between the degree of sclerotial degradation by the two T. viride isolates in the silty clay soil and both temperature and soil water potential. Sclerotia were degraded between 10 and 25°C at −0·00012 MPa, but there was little activity of T. viride at 5°C or at −4 MPa. Degradation of S. cepivorum sclerotia also occurred in the absence of Trichoderma at soil water potentials approaching saturation. Experiments using onion seedling bioassays showed that the efficacy of Trichoderma isolates for the control of white rot using the same selection of soils and S. cepivorum isolates was variable, but that there was significant disease control overall. The importance of environmental factors and pathogen isolate in relation to effective biological control of white rot is discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Onions and garlic are the most popular cultivated forms of the family Alliaceae and consumed by almost every culture on earth. According to the 2001 statistics of the FAO, onions are second only to tomatoes in value of vegetable crops cultivated world wide. There are a number of pathogens attack onions and garlic throughout their developmental stages since the developmental process is important in the progression of diseases. Onions are normally propagated from seed, planted directly into the field, although onion sets and transplants are also used. Garlic has been vegetatively propagated for millennia, by planting cloves. Vegetative propagation results in additional disease management problems. This chapter covers disease management of many of the major bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of onions and garlic, with an emphasis on those diseases that have been the topic of disease management research or for which effective disease management systems have been put into practice. Short descriptions of the pathogens and symptoms are included to assist in identification of the specific diseases.