Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Nigerian Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernel and its Processed Flour

Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 1037, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (Impact Factor: 1.71). 03/1997; 73(3):321 - 328. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199703)73:3<321::AID-JSFA722>3.0.CO;2-4


The dimensions and kernel pH of several Nigerian mangoes were measured and correlated. Thereafter, a local mango kernel (the Ikanekpo variety) was studied with respect to its physical and proximate compositions, indices of the crude fat and the fatty acid composition, amino acid profile, and the bitter principle. The proximate composition and some functional properties of the processed kernel flour were also discussed. Results showed that the linear correlation coefficient between the dimensions of an unshelled seed was higher (+0·95) than that of the fresh kernel (+0·65). The kernel had a pH between 4·8 and 5·0. However, for lengths or breadths lower than 10 cm, correlation with pH was negative. The volatile matter, crude fat and tannin contents were distinguishing features of the composition. The level of unsaturated fatty acids was about double that of the saturated fatty acids. The level of linoleic acid was about three times higher than literature values for other known varieties. Compared with standard proteins, each of six essential amino acids >70% was available. Valine was the limiting amino acid. The level of tannin (45 g kg-1) was high and 48% was extracted by a combined soaking and thermal treatment employed during flour production. Consequently, the calculated LD50 per 70 kg body weight were 0·78 kg raw kernel and 1·5 kg processed flour, respectively. The latter has potential application in the preparation of steamed solid meals for adults in a traditional Nigerian household and could also be suitable for infant formulations considering its particle size distribution. © 1997 SCI.

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    • "The methodology of Arogba (1997) was adopted to obtain the processed mango and bush mango kernels (PMK and PBMK respectively), each seed type (500 g) was shelled to free the kernels before soaking/sulphiting, blanching and drying. The PMK and PBMK were each milled into powdery form. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phenolic constituents (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and anthocyanins), comparative antiradical potency and cytotoxicity of processed mango (Mangifera indica) kernel (PMK), processed bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) kernel (PBMK) and their mixture (MKK) at 50:50 were evaluated. Antiradical assay of the samples was conducted using three different methodologies (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and ferric reducing anti-oxidant power (FRAP)). The three samples contained negligible amounts of anthocyanins (< 0.67 ng/g) compared with the other constituents (1.4 to 2.2 mg/g), largely of gallotannins and flavonoids. However, PBMK had the least flavonoid content, averaging 43%. Due to relative sensitivity of assay techniques to phenolic composition of sample extracts, results from FRAP assay favourably complemented those of another technique to give better reflection of sample’s radical scavenging capacity. Mean inhibitory concentration (IC50) values obtained, showed that the three samples had higher antioxidant capacity than reference quercetin. Similarly, the mean lethal concentration (LC50) values obtained from cytotoxicity assay indicated that the phenolic acid and flavonoid content of the three processed kernel samples were more tolerable physiologically compared with reference dichromate. Both observations were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Processed kernels of mango (Mangifera indica) (PMK) and bush mango (Irvingiagabonensis) (PBMK), therefore, could find application as neutraceuticals and antimicrobials.
    12/2014; 32(1):62-72. DOI:10.1016/S0189-7241(15)30097-7
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    • "varieties, the seed represents 10–25% of the weight of the total fruit and the kernel represents 45–85% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit (Arogba, 1997; Hemavathy, Prabhakar, & Sen, 1988; Solís-Fuentes & Durán-de-Bazúa, 2011). On a dry basis, mango seed kernel (MSK) contains about 71–150 g/kg crude fat (Abdalla et al., 2007; Ali, Gafur, Rahman, & Ahmed, 1985; Gunstone, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was introduced for obtaining premium grade cocoa butter quality fat from the waste of mango seed kernel (MSK), where the Soxhlet method was also used for the comparison. Six different varieties of MSK were selected to be extracted using SC-CO2 at pressures of 35 and 42.2 MPa, temperatures of 60 degrees C and 72 degrees C, and constant CO2 flow rate at 3.4 ml/min. The total fat contents of MSK varieties ranged from 64 to 135 g/kg at SC-CO2 extraction and from 76 to 137 g/kg at Soxhlet extraction methods. The fatty acid constituents of fat yield of all varieties extracted using SC-CO2 ranged from 6.9% to10.9% palmitic acid, 32.8% to 47.6% stearic acid, 37% to 47.3% oleic acid, and 3.7% to 6.9% linoleic acid. However, the physicochemical properties and fatty acid constituents of SC-CO2 extracted MSK fats were found to be comparable to that of commercial cocoa butter.
    CyTA - Journal of Food 05/2013; 12(1):97-103. DOI:10.1080/19476337.2013.801038 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    • "The processing of fresh PMK and PBMK into flour gave dry weight matter content values comparable with that reported from similar processing by Arogba (1997). During processing, Arogba (1997) had indicated water solubility of reducing substances such as polyphenols that impart astringent property to the kernels. Thus, the processed (residual) flour was a useful principal ingredient for confectioneries (Arogba, 1999, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant activity of processed mango (Mangifera indica) kernel (PMK), processed Bush Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) kernel (PBMK) and the mixture of both (MKK) at 50: 50 were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl -1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the three samples showed better correlation with that of reference Quercetin than the reference Vitamin C used. The three samples showed relatively higher radical scavenging effect than the reference samples. The result was significant at p < (0.05), indicative of high level flavonoid and phenolic acid content.
    12/2012; 30(2):17-21. DOI:10.1016/S0189-7241(15)30029-1
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