Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Nigerian Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernel and its Processed Flour

Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 1037, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (Impact Factor: 1.88). 03/1997; 73(3):321 - 328. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199703)73:3<321::AID-JSFA722>3.0.CO;2-4

ABSTRACT The dimensions and kernel pH of several Nigerian mangoes were measured and correlated. Thereafter, a local mango kernel (the Ikanekpo variety) was studied with respect to its physical and proximate compositions, indices of the crude fat and the fatty acid composition, amino acid profile, and the bitter principle. The proximate composition and some functional properties of the processed kernel flour were also discussed. Results showed that the linear correlation coefficient between the dimensions of an unshelled seed was higher (+0·95) than that of the fresh kernel (+0·65). The kernel had a pH between 4·8 and 5·0. However, for lengths or breadths lower than 10 cm, correlation with pH was negative. The volatile matter, crude fat and tannin contents were distinguishing features of the composition. The level of unsaturated fatty acids was about double that of the saturated fatty acids. The level of linoleic acid was about three times higher than literature values for other known varieties. Compared with standard proteins, each of six essential amino acids >70% was available. Valine was the limiting amino acid. The level of tannin (45 g kg-1) was high and 48% was extracted by a combined soaking and thermal treatment employed during flour production. Consequently, the calculated LD50 per 70 kg body weight were 0·78 kg raw kernel and 1·5 kg processed flour, respectively. The latter has potential application in the preparation of steamed solid meals for adults in a traditional Nigerian household and could also be suitable for infant formulations considering its particle size distribution. © 1997 SCI.

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    • "varieties, the seed represents 10–25% of the weight of the total fruit and the kernel represents 45–85% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit (Arogba, 1997; Hemavathy, Prabhakar, & Sen, 1988; Solís-Fuentes & Durán-de-Bazúa, 2011). On a dry basis, mango seed kernel (MSK) contains about 71–150 g/kg crude fat (Abdalla et al., 2007; Ali, Gafur, Rahman, & Ahmed, 1985; Gunstone, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was introduced for obtaining premium grade cocoa butter quality fat from the waste of mango seed kernel (MSK), where the Soxhlet method was also used for the comparison. Six different varieties of MSK were selected to be extracted using SC-CO2 at pressures of 35 and 42.2 MPa, temperatures of 60 degrees C and 72 degrees C, and constant CO2 flow rate at 3.4 ml/min. The total fat contents of MSK varieties ranged from 64 to 135 g/kg at SC-CO2 extraction and from 76 to 137 g/kg at Soxhlet extraction methods. The fatty acid constituents of fat yield of all varieties extracted using SC-CO2 ranged from 6.9% to10.9% palmitic acid, 32.8% to 47.6% stearic acid, 37% to 47.3% oleic acid, and 3.7% to 6.9% linoleic acid. However, the physicochemical properties and fatty acid constituents of SC-CO2 extracted MSK fats were found to be comparable to that of commercial cocoa butter.
    CyTA - Journal of Food 05/2013; 12(1):97-103. DOI:10.1080/19476337.2013.801038 · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    • "This could be attributed to the phospholipids and phenolic compounds in the MSK extract. Gallotannins and condensed tannin-related polyphenols detected by thin-layer chromatography were reported to be present in MSK (Arogba, 1997). In addition, phenolics from dry MSK meal were reported to contain tannic acid, gallic acid, and epicatechin in the ratio 17: 10: 1, respectively (Arogba, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant properties of Mango (Mangifera indica cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel (MSK) extracted by various extraction (shaking, refluxing, acid hydrolysis) methods were examined by applying 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) radical-scavenging assays and antioxidant activity using the ferric thiocyanate test (FTC). All three methods proved that extraction methods affected the antioxidant potential of MSK extracts. The antioxidant capacity of the acid hydrolysis extract had the highest value and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of α-tocopherol, which is the commercially used natural antioxidant. Their phenolic composition (saponin, flavonoids, anthraquinones and tannins) and total phenolic content were also determined. The total phenolic content of MSK from different extraction methods varied between 90.03 and 285.70 mg of tannic acid equivalents per gram dry weight of product. Both flavonoids and tannins were major contributors to the phenolics in MSK. This research suggests that the extract has potential as a natural antioxidant.
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    • "Mango seed kernel is rich in calcium content and is also used for medicinal purposes (Arogba, 1997). The oil content of local mango seed (9.5 per cent) is quite acceptable when compared to other oil seeds (Bernardini, 1985; Badmus, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose - In Nigeria, the mango fruits consumption rate is high during its peak period and this has always resulted in environmental sanitation problem because the mango seeds are thrown to the surroundings immediately the fruits are eaten. Finding more useful application of the kernel would be a way to reduce the environmental pollution. Mechanical decortication of the leathery mango stone remains the only viable option that can support any prospected commercial uses of the mango kernel. Design/methodology/approach - The decorticator consists of a hopper, a decorticating chamber, spiked shaft, screen shaker and discharge spout. The machine performance was evaluated in terms of decorticating efficiency, mechanical damage and sieve loss. Findings - Results of the evaluation show that the optimum performance of the decorticator was at a speed of 900rpm, feed rate of 250kg/h and power requirement of 2.50kW. Originality/value - Mango stones are useful as substitute for maize in finishing broiler diets. The kernel is also used for medicinal purposes in moderation of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. Therefore, the designed mango stone decorticator enhances the complete mechanization processes of mango products.
    Nutrition & Food Science 04/2005; 35(2). DOI:10.1108/00346650510585903
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