Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Nigerian Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernel and its Processed Flour
ABSTRACT The dimensions and kernel pH of several Nigerian mangoes were measured and correlated. Thereafter, a local mango kernel (the Ikanekpo variety) was studied with respect to its physical and proximate compositions, indices of the crude fat and the fatty acid composition, amino acid profile, and the bitter principle. The proximate composition and some functional properties of the processed kernel flour were also discussed. Results showed that the linear correlation coefficient between the dimensions of an unshelled seed was higher (+0·95) than that of the fresh kernel (+0·65). The kernel had a pH between 4·8 and 5·0. However, for lengths or breadths lower than 10 cm, correlation with pH was negative. The volatile matter, crude fat and tannin contents were distinguishing features of the composition. The level of unsaturated fatty acids was about double that of the saturated fatty acids. The level of linoleic acid was about three times higher than literature values for other known varieties. Compared with standard proteins, each of six essential amino acids >70% was available. Valine was the limiting amino acid. The level of tannin (45 g kg-1) was high and 48% was extracted by a combined soaking and thermal treatment employed during flour production. Consequently, the calculated LD50 per 70 kg body weight were 0·78 kg raw kernel and 1·5 kg processed flour, respectively. The latter has potential application in the preparation of steamed solid meals for adults in a traditional Nigerian household and could also be suitable for infant formulations considering its particle size distribution. © 1997 SCI.
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ABSTRACT: The antioxidant properties of Mango (Mangifera indica cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel (MSK) extracted by various extraction (shaking, refluxing, acid hydrolysis) methods were examined by applying 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) radical-scavenging assays and antioxidant activity using the ferric thiocyanate test (FTC). All three methods proved that extraction methods affected the antioxidant potential of MSK extracts. The antioxidant capacity of the acid hydrolysis extract had the highest value and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of α-tocopherol, which is the commercially used natural antioxidant. Their phenolic composition (saponin, flavonoids, anthraquinones and tannins) and total phenolic content were also determined. The total phenolic content of MSK from different extraction methods varied between 90.03 and 285.70 mg of tannic acid equivalents per gram dry weight of product. Both flavonoids and tannins were major contributors to the phenolics in MSK. This research suggests that the extract has potential as a natural antioxidant.Nat. Sci.). 01/2009; 43:290-297.
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ABSTRACT: Mango seed kernels (MSK) are discarded as agricultural wastes of industrial processing’s by-product as well as direct consumption of the mango fruits. The extraction parameters of SC-CO2 were optimized using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM)yielding cocoa butter analogy fats from MSK. The pressure, temperature, and CO2 flow rate were considered as variables, where the linear and quadratic effect of the flow rate of CO2, quadratic effect of pressure, and interaction between pressure and temperature was positive and most significant on the MSK oil yield. On the other hand, linear effect of pressure and temperature,quadratic effect of temperature, and interaction between temperature and CO2 flow rate had a less impact. The optimized oil yield was predicted to be 11.29% at 44.2 MPa, 72.2 ºC and CO2 flow rate of 3.4 ml/min which was close to the oil yield (11.7%) of Soxhlet extraction method. The MSK oil extracted using SC-CO2 method could be regarded as premium quality cocoa butter analogy fats in this study.International Conference of Science Technology and Social Science (ICSTSS)International Conference of Science Technology and Social Science (ICSTSS); 01/2012
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ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology was used to determine optimum conditions for extraction of protein from red pepper seed meal. A central composite design including independent variables such as temperature (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 °C), pH (7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0), extraction time (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) and solvent/meal ratio (10:1, 15:1, 20:1, 25:1 and 30:1 v/w) was used. Selected response (dependent variable) which evaluates the extraction process was protein yield and the second-order model obtained for protein yield revealed coefficient of determination of 96.7%. Protein yield was primarily affected by pH and solvent/meal ratio. Maximum yield was obtained when temperature, pH, mixing time and solvent/meal ratio were 31 °C, 8.8, 20 min, 21:1 (v/w), respectively. These conditions resulted in protein yield of 12.24 g of soluble protein from extract/100 g defatted red pepper seed flour. The adequacy of the model was confirmed by extracting the protein under optimum values given by the model. These results help in designing the process of optimal protein extraction from red pepper seeds.LWT - Food Science and Technology. 01/2010; 43(2):226-231.