Tracing pathway activities with kinase inhibitors and reverse phase protein arrays
ABSTRACT Controlling aberrant protein kinase activity is a promising strategy for a variety of diseases, particularly cancer. Hence, the development of kinase inhibitors is currently a focal point for pharmaceutical research. In this study we utilize a chip-based reverse phase protein array (RPA) platform for profiling of kinase inhibitors in cell-based assays. In combination with the planar wave-guide technology the assay system has an absolute LOD down to the low zeptomole range. A431 cell lysates were analyzed for the activation state of key effectors in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin signaling pathways to validate this model for compound screening. A microtiter-plate format for growing, treating, and lysing cells was shown to be suitable for this approach, establishing the value of the technology as a screening tool for characterization of large numbers of kinase inhibitors against a wide variety of cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, the reverse array format allows rapid development of site-specific phosphorylation assays, since in contrast to ELISA type systems only a single antigen-specific antibody is required.
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ABSTRACT: Systems biology promises to impact significantly on the drug discovery process. One of its ultimate goals is to provide an understanding of the complete set of molecular mechanisms describing an organism. Although this goal is a long way off, many useful insights can already come from currently available information and technology. One of the biggest challenges in drug discovery today is the high attrition rate: many promising candidates prove ineffective or toxic owing to a poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biological systems they target. A "systems" approach can help identify pathways related to a disease and can suggest secondary effects of drugs that might cause these problems and thus ultimately improve the drug discovery pipeline.FEBS Letters 04/2005; 579(8):1872-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
Article: Antibody arrays in cancer research.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antibody arrays have valuable applications in cancer research. Many different antibody array technologies have been developed, each with particular advantages, disadvantages, and optimal applications. The methods have been demonstrated on various sample types, such as serum, plasma, and other bodily fluids; cell culture supernatants; tissue culture lysates; and resected tumor specimens. The applications to cancer research have included profiling proteins to identify candidate biomarkers, characterizing signaling pathways, and the measurement of changes in modification or expression level of cancer-related proteins. Further innovations in the methods and experimental strategies are broadening the scope of the applications and the type of information that can be gathered. These alternate formats and uses of antibody arrays include arrays to measure whole cells, arrays to measure enzyme activities, reverse phase arrays, and bead-based arrays. This article reviews the various types of antibody array methods and their applications to cancer research.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 05/2005; 4(4):377-83. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer can be defined as a deregulation or hyperactivity in the ongoing network of intracellular and extracellular signaling events. Reverse phase protein microarray technology may offer a new opportunity to measure and profile these signaling pathways, providing data on post-translational phosphorylation events not obtainable by gene microarray analysis. Treatment of ovarian epithelial carcinoma almost always takes place in a metastatic setting since unfortunately the disease is often not detected until later stages. Thus, in addition to elucidation of the molecular network within a tumor specimen, critical questions are to what extent do signaling changes occur upon metastasis and are there common pathway elements that arise in the metastatic microenvironment. For individualized combinatorial therapy, ideal therapeutic selection based on proteomic mapping of phosphorylation end points may require evaluation of the patient's metastatic tissue. Extending these findings to the bedside will require the development of optimized protocols and reference standards. We have developed a reference standard based on a mixture of phosphorylated peptides to begin to address this challenge.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 05/2005; 4(4):346-55. · 7.25 Impact Factor