Reader and text factors in reading comprehension processes
ABSTRACT The effects of epistemic beliefs and text structure on cognitive processes during comprehension of scientific texts were investigated. On-line processes were measured using think-aloud (Experiment 1) and reading time (Experiment 2) methodologies. Measures of off-line comprehension, prior knowledge and epistemic beliefs were obtained. Results indicated that readers adjust their processing as a function of the interaction between epistemic beliefs and text structure. Readers with misconceptions and more sophisticated epistemic beliefs engage in conceptual change processes, but only when reading refutation texts. Results also showed that memory for text is not affected by differences in epistemic beliefs or text structure. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relations among factors associated with text comprehension and have implications for theories of conceptual change.
The Journal of Experimental Education 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/00220973.2015.1027806 · 1.09 Impact Factor
- "The near transfer test required the use of knowledge acquired in each of the texts applied in a different context (Barnett & Ceci, 2002; Kinstch, 1998), whereas the questionnaire used as pre-and posttest required retrieval of the information from prior knowledge and the texts. Previous research with refutation texts suggests that evidence for Downloaded by [University of Oslo] at 22:52 17 August 2015 conceptual change is more likely to be reflected in tasks that assess readers' learning from text as opposed to memory for the text (Guzzetti et al., 1993; Kendeou et al., 2011; Mason et al., 2008). Thus, conceptual change is more likely to be reflected in the performance on the near transfer test than on the questionnaire used as pre-and posttest. "
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- "Think-aloud protocols assess comprehension during narrative exposure by requiring on-going commentary indicating narrative understanding (Suh and Trabasso, 1993). Typically used for written text comprehension assessment in adults (Trabasso and Suh, 1993; Magliano et al., 1999; Kendeou et al., 2011), think-aloud protocols have informed how and when mental representations form and update (Graesser et al., 1997; Kurby and Zacks, 2012). When used with children as young as 6 years old, narrative events are presented as picture books and children describe the main character's thoughts (Lynch and van den Broek, 2007) or what is happening in the scene (Milch-Reich et al., 1999). "
ABSTRACT: Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children's play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation) proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children's later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives) with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability of narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives.Frontiers in Psychology 03/2014; 5:168. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00168 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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- "A final set of implications pertains to the role of background knowledge. Having appropriate background knowledge is essential for generating inferences (McNamara & Kendeou, 2011). When the intervention goal is to help struggling readers develop inference making skills it is important that the materials do not require background knowledge that the student does not possess; without the required knowledge the student simply would not be able to practice inference making. "
ABSTRACT: Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a “cognitive view” of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and attention allocation influence reading comprehension processes and outcomes and may lead to reading comprehension problems. Finally, we discuss how the consideration of these potential sources of difficulty have practical implications for the design and selection of instructional materials.Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 02/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1111/ldrp.12025 · 1.12 Impact Factor