Article

Reader and text factors in reading comprehension processes

Journal of Research in Reading (Impact Factor: 1.25). 04/2010; 34(4):365 - 383. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2010.01436.x

ABSTRACT The effects of epistemic beliefs and text structure on cognitive processes during comprehension of scientific texts were investigated. On-line processes were measured using think-aloud (Experiment 1) and reading time (Experiment 2) methodologies. Measures of off-line comprehension, prior knowledge and epistemic beliefs were obtained. Results indicated that readers adjust their processing as a function of the interaction between epistemic beliefs and text structure. Readers with misconceptions and more sophisticated epistemic beliefs engage in conceptual change processes, but only when reading refutation texts. Results also showed that memory for text is not affected by differences in epistemic beliefs or text structure. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relations among factors associated with text comprehension and have implications for theories of conceptual change.

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    ABSTRACT: The use of texts in science classrooms has waned significantly over the past two decades. However, recently, researchers have shown renewed interest in the use of refutation texts as a tool for promoting conceptual change and science learning. In this article, we examine the intersection of conceptual change and reading comprehension research in science education. We begin by explaining how researchers in conceptual change have turned their interests toward text comprehension. We then examine models of reading comprehension that contribute to our understanding of how text can promote science learning in general and conceptual change in particular. Next, we examine recent empirical research concerning the effect of refutation text in promoting conceptual change in science. We close with suggestions for future research that seeks to integrate these two areas for the advancement of both scientific literacy and literacy skill development.إن استخدام النصوص في فصول العلوم تضاءل كثيرا على مستوى العقدين الماضيين. ومع ذلك فقد أظهر الباحثون مؤخرا تجدد الاهتمام باستخدام نصوص التفنيد كأداة لتشجيع التغيير المفاهيمي وتعلم العلوم. في هذه المقالة، ندرس تقاطع التغيير المفاهيمي وأبحاث قراءة الفهم في علوم التربية. نبدأ بشرح كيف تحول اهتمام الباحثين في التغييرات المفاهيمية نحو فهم النص. ثم نبحث نماذج قراءة الفهم التي تسهم في فهمنا لكيفية تشجيع النص على تعلم العلوم بشكل عام والتغيير المفاهيمي بشكل خاص. وبعد ذلك، ندرس الأبحاث التجريبية الأخيرة فيما يتعلق بتأثير النص التفنيدي في التشجيع على التغيير المفاهيمي في العلوم. نختتم باقتراحات للأبحاث في المستقبل تسعى إلى الجمع بين هذين المجالين للنهوض بالقراءة والكتابة العلمية وتطوير مهارات القراءة والكتابة.在过去的二十年中,文本在科学课堂上的使用著着地减少了。然而,研究人员近来对使用驳斥性议论文作为促进概念转变及科学科学习的工具,重新产生兴趣。本文考查在科学教育研究里概念转变与阅读理解之相交点。本文作者首先解释概念转变之研究者,为何会对文本阅读理解产生兴趣,然后考查多种阅读理解的模型,以探究文本如何在广义上促进科学科的学习及在狭义上促进概念转变。作者继而检视最近有关驳斥性议论文对促进科学概念转变之影响的实证研究。在结论中,作者建议一些探求结合这两个领域的未来研究,以促进科学科读写能力与读写技巧两者之发展。L'utilisation des textes en classe de sciences a diminué fortement au cours des deux dernières décennies. 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Nous terminons enfin sur des suggestions pour de futures recherches cherchant à intégrer ces deux domaines afin de faire progresser à la fois la littératie scientifique et le développement des compétences en littératie.B пocлeдниe двa дecятилeтия нayчныe тeкcты иcпoльзyютcя нa ypoкax зaмeтнo peжe. Oднaкo ceйчac oтмeчeнo вoзoбнoвлeниe интepeca к тeкcтaм, coдepжaщим нayчный cпop, дoкaзaтeльcтвa и oпpoвepжeния. Учитeля иcпoльзyют иx в кaчecтвe инcтpyмeнтa для изyчeния cмeны нayчныx кoнцeпций. Aвтopы cтaтьи aнaлизиpyют, кaк cмeнa нayчныx кoнцeпций oтpaжaeтcя нa пoнимaнии yчaщимиcя ecтecтвeннoнayчныx тeкcтoв и нacкoлькo дocтyпнo иccлeдoвaтeли кoнцeптyaльныx пepeмeн oтoбpaжaют иx в тeкcтax. Зaтeм paccмaтpивaютcя мoдeли ‘чтeния для пoнимaния’, кoтopыe дeмoнcтpиpyют, кaк тeкcт мoжeт двигaть впepeд изyчeниe нayки в цeлoм и кoнцeптyaльныx пepeмeн, пpoизoшeдшиx в нayкe, в чacтнocти. Aвтopы aнaлизиpyют нeдaвнee эмпиpичecкoe иccлeдoвaниe, пocвящeннoe влиянию тeкcтoв-oпpoвepжeний нa cмeнy пpeдcтaвлeний yчaщиxcя o ecтecтвeнныx нayкax. B зaключeниe пpeдлoжeны тeмы для бyдyщиx иccлeдoвaний, кoтopыe пpизвaны oбъeдинить paзвитиe нaвыкoв нayчнoй гpaмoтнocти c paзвитиeм гpaмoтнocти кaк тaкoвoй.El uso de textos en las clases de ciencias ha disminuido considerablemente en las últimas dos décadas. Sin embargo, la investigación reciente muestra un nuevo interés en el uso del texto de refutación como instrumento para fomentar cambios conceptuales y el aprendizaje de las ciencias. En este artículo se examina la intersección del cambio conceptual y la investigación sobre la comprensión lectora en la educación científica. Empezamos explicando cómo los investigadores de cambios conceptuales se han interesado en la comprensión textual. Luego examinamos modelos de comprensión lectora que contribuyen a nuestro entendimiento de cómo los textos pueden fomentar el aprendizaje de las ciencias en general y el cambio conceptual en particular. Luego examinamos investigación empírica reciente sobre cómo el texto de refutación fomenta el cambio conceptual. Concluimos con sugerencias para investigaciones futuras que busquen integrar estas dos áreas para mejorar la alfabetización científica y el desarrollo de destrezas de lectura.
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