"Endometrial cancer spreads towards myometrial wall, cervix, and lymphatic stations of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes . Prognosis of this malignancy depends on various factors: histological type of the tumour, the depth of invasion into the myometrium, and lymph node involvement    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy and its incidence is increasing. In 1998, international federation of gynaecologists and obstetricians (FIGO) required a change from clinical to surgical staging in endometrial cancer, introducing pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. This staging requirement raised controversies around the importance of determining nodal status and impact of lymphadenectomy on outcomes. There is agreement about the prognostic value of lymphadenectomy, but its extent, therapeutic value, and benefits in terms of survival are still matter of debate, especially in early stages. Accurate preoperative risk stratification can guide to the appropriate type of surgery by selecting patients who benefit of lymphadenectomy. However, available preoperative and intraoperative investigations are not highly accurate methods to detect lymph nodes and a complete surgical staging remains the most precise method to evaluate extrauterine spread of the disease. Laparotomy has always been considered the standard approach for endometrial cancer surgical staging. Traditional and robotic-assisted laparoscopic techniques seem to provide equivalent results in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival compared to laparotomy. These minimally invasive approaches demonstrated additional benefits as shorter hospital stay, less use of pain killers, lower rate of complications and improved quality of life.
Obstetrics and Gynecology International 06/2010; 2010:181963. DOI:10.1155/2010/181963
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Uterine cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in women in the United States with an estimated number of 40,100 women diagnosed in 2008, the great majority of which belongs to endometrial classification. The traditional approach to treatment of endometrial cancer has been primarily surgery via an open, laparotomy incision. Minimally invasive approaches with smaller incisions, i.e., laparoscopy for the management of endometrial cancer was initially reported in 1992; however, its adoption has been slow due to the prolonged learning curve needed to become proficient in such a technique. Robotic-assisted surgery, a further advancement of traditional laparoscopy, using computer-based controls has been developed enabling the performance of complex procedures that otherwise had been too difficult to accomplish in a minimally invasive fashion. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is one such example that has gained rapid acceptance in recent years. Although the use of robotic-assisted laparoscopy for endometrial cancer is still in its early phase, this approach is anticipated to become similarly, a common approach to the management of endometrial cancer in the future.
Current Treatment Options in Oncology 05/2009; 10(1-2):33-43. DOI:10.1007/s11864-009-0086-4 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic management of endometrial carcinoma
(EC) in a large series of consecutive patients from two referral cancer centres. The study is a large retrospective study
with 15-year follow-up. The clinical records of 207 consecutive women with clinical stage I EC managed by laparoscopy between
1990 and 2005 were reviewed. Laparoscopy included peritoneal washing, inspection of abdominal cavity, total laparoscopic hysterectomy
+ bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenectomy depending on the preoperative histology or frozen
section results. Data collected included conversion rate, operative time, hospital stay, surgical complications, FIGO 1988
stage and 5-year survival. Laparoscopic procedures were converted to laparotomy in nine (4.3%) cases. Mean operative time
was 173.2 min (70–300 min). Mean hospital stay was 5 days. The mean number of lymph nodes removed was 10 (2–25). Lymphadenectomy
was considered not feasible in 20 cases (12.9%) due to technical difficulties. Intraoperative and postoperative complications
were seen in 11 (5.6%) and 13 (6.6%) women, respectively. Histopathological results led to upstaging in 11.6% of cases. After
a mean follow-up of 74.8 months (14–204 months), 5-year cause-specific and disease-free survival rates were 93.2% and 89.3%,
respectively. Twenty-one (10.6%) patients developed recurrences. No port site metastases were identified. Laparoscopic management
of EC is feasible, reproducible and does not worsen patient prognosis. It allows comprehensive surgical staging and the option
of lymphadenectomy in a single surgical procedure without compromising the oncological radicality required. Our results show
minimal morbidity and similar long-term outcomes than those obtained by laparotomy in the literature.
Gynecological Surgery 11/2011; DOI:10.1007/s10397-011-0660-1
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