The l,3-ß-glucan synthase (callose synthase, EC 22.214.171.124) was solubilized from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plasma membranes with digitonin, and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration [fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)] using 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate (CHAPS) in the elution buffers. These initial steps were necessary to obtain specific precipitation of the enzyme during product entrapment, the final purification step. Five polypeptides of 32, 35, 57, 65 and 66 kDa were highly enriched in the final preparation and are thus likely components of the callose synthase complex. The purified enzyme was activated by Ca2+, spermine and cellobiose in the same way as the enzyme in situ, indicating that no essential subunits were missing. The polyglucan produced by the purified enzyme contained mainly 1,3-linked glucose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid enrichment of CHAPS-solubilized UDP-glucose:(1,3)-beta-glucan (callose) synthase from storage tissue of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is obtained when the preparation is incubated with an enzyme assay mixture, then centrifuged and the enzyme released from the callose pellet with a buffer containing EDTA and CHAPS (20-fold purification relative to microsomes). When centrifuged at high speed (80,000g), the enzyme can also be pelleted in the absence of substrate (UDP-Glc) or synthesis of callose, due to nonspecific aggregation of proteins caused by excess cations and insufficient detergent in the assay buffer. True time-dependent and substrate-dependent product-entrapment of callose synthase is obtained by low-speed centrifugation (7,000-11,000g) of enzyme incubated in reaction mixtures containing low levels of cations (0.5 millimolar Mg(2+), 1 millimolar Ca(2+)) and sufficient detergent (0.02% digitonin, 0.12% CHAPS), together with cellobiose, buffer, and UDP-Glc. Entrapment conditions, therefore, are a compromise between preventing nonspecific precipitation of proteins and permitting sufficient enzyme activity for callose synthesis. Further enrichment of the enzyme released from the callose pellet was not obtained by rate-zonal glycerol gradient centrifugation, although its sedimentation rate was greatly enhanced by inclusion of divalent cations in the gradient. Preparations were markedly cleaner when product-entrapment was conducted on enzyme solubilized from plasma membranes isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning rather than by gradient centrifugation. Product-entrapped preparations consistently contained polypeptides or groups of closely-migrating polypeptides at molecular masses of 92, 83, 70, 57, 43, 35, 31/29, and 27 kilodaltons. This polypeptide profile is in accordance with the findings of other callose synthase enrichment studies using a variety of tissue sources, and is consistent with the existence of a multi-subunit enzyme complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A monoclonal antibody (MAb) capable of immobilizing detergent-solubilized UDP-glucose: (13)--glucan (callose) synthase activity from higher plants has been selected and characterized. On Western blots this MAb recognizes a polypeptide of about 65 kDa found in membranes isolated from a variety of plant sources. The polypeptide recognized by this MAb does not appear to bind the substrate UDP-glucose, and evidence is presented which indicates that this polypeptide associates with the enzyme complex in a cation-dependent manner under conditions where the callose synthase assumes a larger size. Indirect immunofluorescence localization with this MAb was positive with sieve plates of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, and with plasmodesmata of onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells, both being sites of localized, stress-induced callose deposition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pollen-tube cell walls are unusual in that they are composed almost entirely of callose, a (1,3)--linked glucan with a few 6-linked branches. Regulation of callose synthesis in pollen tubes is under developmental control, and this contrasts with the deposition of callose in the walls of somatic plant cells which generally occurs only in response to wounding or stress. The callose synthase (uridine-diphosphate glucose: 1,3--d-glucan 3--d-glucosyl transferase, EC 126.96.36.199) activities of membrane preparations from cultured pollen tubes and suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto (ornamental tobacco) exhibited different kinetic and regulatory properties. Callose synthesis by membrane preparations from pollen tubes was not stimulated by Ca2+ or other divalent cations, and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics only between 0.25 mM and 6 mM uridine-diphosphate glucose (K
m 1.5–2.5 mM); it was activated by -glucosides and compatible detergents. In contrast, callose synthesis by membrane preparations from suspension-cultured cells was dependent on Ca2+, and in the presence of 2 mM Ca2+ exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics above 0.1 mM uridine-diphosphate glucose (K
m 0.45 mM); it also required a -glucoside and low levels of compatible detergent for full activity, but was rapidly inactivated at higher levels of detergent. Callose synthase activity in pollen-tube membranes increased ten fold after treatment of the membranes with trypsin in the presence of detergent, with no changes in cofactor requirements. No increase in callose synthase activity, however, was observed when membranes from suspension-cultured cells were treated with trypsin. The insoluble polymeric product of the pollen-tube enzyme was characterised as a linear (1,3)--d-glucan with no 6-linked glucosyl branches, and the same product was synthesised irrespective of the assay conditions employed.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.