THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TRADITIONAL PROCESSING METHODS ON THE GLYCEMIC INDEX AND GLYCEMIC LOAD OF COWPEAS (VIGNA UNGUICULATA)
ABSTRACT The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of processed brown cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) were determined. The whole seeds were dehulled, ground into a paste and steamed (“moin-moin” MM) or fried (“Akara” FB). Proximate analyses were done to determine the quantity containing 50 g available carbohydrate. Forty healthy volunteers were used for this study. The test groups consumed the processed cowpea while 50 g glucose was administered to the control group. The blood glucose response at 0, 30, 60,120 and 180 min was assessed for each individual of the different groups. The GI values for BB, MM and FB were 46.63 ± 9.0, 50.98 ± 5.74 and 53.42 ± 9.50, respectively. The GL values for the test foods were 5.51 ± 1.19, 6.92 ± 2.14 and 4.94 ± 1.88, respectively. The GI and GL values for the test foods did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). However, BB had the lowest GI and GL values.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSLegumes, particularly cowpeas, are good sources of nutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fiber, vitamins and minerals). Recently, beans have been shown to be low glycemic index (GI) foods. They therefore have positive health benefits which include hypocholesterolemia, mitigation of diabetes and weight control.Cowpeas are processed traditionally in Nigeria, by soaking, dehulling, grinding, frying steaming and boiling to form cooked beans. These methods are often combined by grinding to a paste and fried or steamed to form “Akara” (fried bean cakes) and “moin-moin” (steamed bean pudding), respectively. These processing methods generally alter the contents and nutritional quality of the seeds when consumed.Diabetic Nigerians often eat these processed legumes because they help reduce hyperglycemic stress while providing satiety effects.The determination of the glycemic indices and glycemic loads of these processed legumes will give useful information as to how best legumes can be processed for consumption by people with diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Conclusion The last decade has seen much interest in the physiological response to carbohydrate foods. Interest in dietary fibre emphasised the possible influence of events within the gastrointestinal tract on carbohydrate metabolism. Links have been established between digestibility and the glycaemic response to foods. However, the influence of food factors on these processes is ill understood. Nevertheless food form, certain types of fibre, other anti-nutrients and the nature of the starch-protein interaction may be major determinants. Genetic differences in the responses of different individuals to the same food remain to be explored. For example, the protein, gliadin, may act as a lectin  in susceptible individuals to the extent of causing villous atrophy (coeliac disease) and so severely limiting absorption. Coeliac disease and Type 1 diabetes are linked both in occurrence  and in the frequency with which sufferers share the same tissue antigens (HLA-B8 and DW3) [99–102]. Less dramatic alterations in absorptive capacity may be seen in subclinical coeliac disease or with other anti-nutrients. These, therefore, represent other ways in which food can modify the glycaemic response. Perhaps in those with impaired carbohydrate metabolism a mildly reduced absorptive capacity could be beneficial.In view of the present state of knowledge, the decisions of the American and Canadian Diabetes Associations and the British Diabetic Association to increase carbohydrate intake [1–3] may be seen as a worthwhile move to encourage not so much gastronomic licence, but, some would say, more frugal living. The frugality might be lightened by inclusion of new foods and preservation of certain ethnic dishes. Indeed choice for the diabetic may ultimately be greatly enhanced as indicated by two recently published diet guides [103, 104]. The advice was not intended to be thrust on all with a sweep of the pen but it will give support to those willing to prescribe, and those willing to accept, such diets. In addition, it has provided a tremendous impetus to further activity for those working in this field. For those unable to take the diets, continued exploration along these lines may result in new pharmaceutical approaches to the management of diabetes.Diabetologia 01/1983; 23(6):477-84. · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bedtime carbohydrate (CHO) intake in patients with type-2 diabetes may improve glucose tolerance at breakfast the next morning. We examined the 'overnight second-meal effect' of bedtime supplements containing 'rapid' or 'slow' CHOs. Randomized cross-over study with three test-periods, each consisting of two days on a standardized diet, followed by a breakfast tolerance test on the third morning. The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Sixteen patients with type 2 diabetes on oral agents and/or diet. Two different bedtime (22.00 h) CHO supplements (0.46 g available CHO/kg body weight) were compared to a starch-free placebo ('normal' food regimen). The CHOs were provided as uncooked cornstarch (slow-release CHOs) or white bread (rapid CHOs). On the mornings after different bedtime meals we found similar fasting glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and lactate levels. However, the glycaemic response after breakfast was 21% less after uncooked cornstarch compared to placebo ingestion at bedtime (406 +/- 46 vs 511 +/- 61 mmol min l(-1), P < 0.01). In contrast, it did not differ when the evening meal consisted of white bread (451 +/- 57 mmol min l(-1)) compared to placebo. According to an in vitro analysis, uncooked cornstarch contained approximately 4 times more slowly digestible starch as compared to white bread. A bedtime meal providing uncooked cornstarch improved breakfast tolerance the next morning while, in contrast, this was not found following a bedtime meal of white bread. The results are consistent, therefore, with the concept that an increased intake of slowly digestible carbohydrates exert an overnight second-meal effect in patients with type 2 diabetes.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/1999; 53(9):706-10. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Akara (fried cowpea paste) a popular West African cowpea (Visna unguiculata) product was prepared from cowpea paste stored under refrigeration (4‐6°C) and freezer (‐18°C) temperatures for 10 and 24 days respectively. Blanched and unblanched paste were stored. Akara from freshly prepared paste was used as control. The sensory properties investigated were colour, taste, texture and aroma. Akara from various paste samples; refrigerator stored paste (RSP) freezer stored paste (FSP) and fresh paste (FP) were rated for the various attributes and the degree of difference from the control by a trained panel. Sensory attributes of RSP akara were majorly rated between good and fair in the first 3 days. Attributes were rated between fair and bad by the 6 and 10 days of storage and were significantly different from FP akara. Sensory attributes of FSP akara were rated between good and fair until the 17 day of storage. Blanching proved beneficial as a pre‐storage treatment for the preservation of akara texture in the first 3 days for RSP and for 24 days for FSP. The results showed that the properties of cowpea paste which influence texture and overall sensory quality of akara, were better preserved in frozen storage. The implications of the results on the feasibility of bulk production and storage of cowpea paste for retail as a frozen ingredient are discussed.International Journal of Food Properties 07/2000; 3(2):295-304. · 0.91 Impact Factor