Antiarthritic Activity of a Standardized, Multiherbal, Ayurvedic Formulation containing Boswellia serrata: In Vitro Studies on Knee Cartilage from Osteoarthritis Patients

Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Pune University, Pune, India
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.4). 02/2011; 25(9):1375 - 1380. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3365

ABSTRACT A validated in vitro model of cartilage damage and published data were used showing that this model measures the chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of different antiarthritic drugs. In this report, this model was used to evaluate the effects of a new antiarthritic Ayurvedic formulation containing Zingiber officinale root, Tinospora cordifolia stem, Phyllanthus emblica fruit and oleoresin of Boswellia serrata. Glucosamine sulphate was used as a positive control in the study. Aqueous extracts of each drug were tested on explant cultures of knee cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. The new formulation caused a sustained and statistically significant inhibition in the release of glycosaminoglycans and aggrecan by cartilage explants from these patients. This formulation also induced a transient antiinflammatory effect as measured by a reduction in the levels of nitric oxide released by explants. Furthermore, the data strongly suggest that oleoresin of B. serrata plays a crucial role in the chondroprotective and antiinflammatory activity of this formulation. In summary, this report provides the first, direct, in vitro biochemical evidence of anti-arthritic activity a new Ayurvedic formulation. This formulation significantly reduced damage of articular knee cartilage from chronic osteoarthritis patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Download full-text


Available from: Bhushan K Patwardhan, Jul 02, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) is a popular disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) despite modest efficacy and toxicity. Ayurveda (ancient India medicinal system) physicians treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with allegedly safer herbal formulations. We report a head-to-head comparison in an exploratory drug trial. The objective is to compare standardized Ayurvedic formulations and HCQS in the treatment of RA. One hundred twenty-one patients with active moderately severe RA (ACR 1988 classified) were randomized into a 24-week investigator-blind, parallel efficacy, three-arm (two Ayurvedic and HCQS) multicenter drug trial study; polyherb (Tinospora cordifolia and Zingiber officinale based) and monoherb (Semecarpus anacardium). Study measures included joint counts (pain/tenderness and swelling), pain visual analogue scale, global disease assessments, and health assessment questionnaire. Oral meloxicam (fixed-dosage schedule) was prescribed to all patients during the initial 16 weeks. Patients on prednisolone could continue a fixed stable dose (<7.5 mg daily). Rescue oral use of paracetamol was permitted and monitored. All groups matched well at baseline. An intent-to-treat analysis (ANOVA, significance P < 0.05) did not show significant differences by treatment groups. In the polyherb, monoherb, and HCQS arms, 44%, 36%, and 51%, respectively, showed ACR 20 index improvement. Several efficacy measures improved significantly in the HCQS and polyherb groups with no difference between the groups (corrected P). However, the latter was individually superior to monoherb. Only mild adverse events (gut and skin, and none withdrew) were reported with no differences between the groups. Forty-two patients dropped out. This preliminary drug trial controlled for HCQS demonstrated a standardized Ayurvedic polyherb drug to be effective and safe in controlling active RA. A better-designed study with a longer evaluation period is recommended.
    Clinical Rheumatology 07/2011; 31(2):259-69. DOI:10.1007/s10067-011-1809-z · 1.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. To demonstrate clinical equivalence between two standardized Ayurveda (India) formulations (SGCG and SGC), glucosamine and celecoxib (NSAID).Methods. Ayurvedic formulations (extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Zingiber officinale, Emblica officinalis, Boswellia serrata), glucosamine sulphate (2 g daily) and celecoxib (200 mg daily) were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-efficacy, four-arm, multicentre equivalence drug trial of 24 weeks duration. A total of 440 eligible patients suffering from symptomatic knee OA were enrolled and monitored as per protocol. Primary efficacy variables were active body weight-bearing pain (visual analogue scale) and modified WOMAC pain and functional difficulty Likert score (for knee and hip); the corresponding a priori equivalence ranges were ±1.5 cm, ±2.5 and ±8.5.Results. Differences between the intervention arms for mean changes in primary efficacy variables were within the equivalence range by intent-to-treat and per protocol analysis. Twenty-six patients showed asymptomatic increased serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) with otherwise normal liver function; seven patients (Ayurvedic intervention) were withdrawn and SGPT normalized after stopping the drug. Other adverse events were mild and did not differ by intervention. Overall, 28% of patients withdrew from the study.Conclusion. In this 6-month controlled study of knee OA, Ayurvedic formulations (especially SGCG) significantly reduced knee pain and improved knee function and were equivalent to glucosamine and celecoxib. The unexpected SGPT rise requires further safety assessment.Trial registration: Clinical Drug Trial Registry - India,, CTRI/2008/091/000063.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 01/2013; DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/kes414 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionMeniscal tear is thought to play a crucial role in onset as well as progression of arthritis. However, role of cytokine response to meniscal injury and resulting inflammation is not clearly understood. Because synovial fluid is juxtaposed to cartilage and serves as a biological connection between chondrocytes and synoviocytes, we chose synovial fluid analysis to ascertain biochemical response associated with a meniscal tear.Case presentationWe report the cases of two patients with clinically different inflammatory arthritis, both of whom are Indian men. Patient 1 was 30 years of age, and patient 2 was 50 years of age. They both had a history of meniscal tear, which we confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging scans. Synovial fluid samples obtained from these two patients were analyzed for proinflammatory markers, such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide, and also for glycosaminoglycan as a cartilage degradation indicator. Relatively high levels of IL-1β (2000.0±15.7pg/ml) and nitric oxide (4.73±0.05μM/ml) and relatively low glycosaminoglycan (93.75±6.3μg/ml) were observed in patient 1, corroborating the diagnosis of traumatic meniscal tear. Compared to patient 1, Patient 2 had relatively low levels of IL-1β (54.55±14.5pg/ml) and nitric oxide (20.00±0.6μM/ml) and remarkably high glycosaminoglycan levels (553.33±1.7μg/ml), coupled with significant osteophytes and profound cartilage loss, which indicated severe arthritis and a diagnosis of degenerative meniscal tear.ConclusionThe elevated levels of inflammatory IL-1β aggravated the severity of arthritis attributable to meniscal tear in both patients, as found in follow-up visits. This was quite evident in patient 2, whereas patient 1, being younger, had less serious symptoms. Meniscal tear has emerged as a potential confounding factor in arthritis with different clinical backgrounds, which leads to increased levels of inflammation and results in accelerated disease progression.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 05/2014; 8(1):137. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-137