Age Polyethism in Worker Honey Bees
Department of Biology, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, GenevaEthology (Impact Factor: 1.56). 04/2010; 71(3):252 - 255. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.1986.tb00589.x
- Insectes Sociaux - INSECTES SOC. 01/1988; 35(3):262-270.
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ABSTRACT: Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance (“housekeeping”) tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger “house” bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease resistance and fitness without considering the effects of age-related development.PLoS Pathogens 12/2012; 8(12): e1003083(PLoSe1003083. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003083). · 8.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This memo summarizes results obtained from an analysis of seven transient overpower experiments (PNL2-1, PNL2-11, HOP3-3C, C4A, C4B, C4G, C4H) tested in the TREAT facility. The objective of this analysis was to determine the feasibility of predicting cladding failure under transient overpower conditions using the results of a mechanistic fuel rod structural analysis and data from basic cladding material property tests. These results are summarized. A secondary objective was to compare the predictive ability of this mechanistic approach with the predictive ability of more empirical methods. A mechanistic approach to cladding failure prediction is defined as one in which cladding stresses and strains are calculated as functions of time and are compared with basic cladding material property data to predict failure. An empirical approach is defined as one in which basic cladding property data are not used directly to evaluate cladding response or in which cladding loading is not expressed in terms of cladding stress and strain histories.
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