Analytical characterization of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) essential oil

Università Campus Biomedico Via A. del Portillo 21 – 00128 Rome, Italy
Flavour and Fragrance Journal (Impact Factor: 1.97). 01/2011; 26(1):34 - 46. DOI: 10.1002/ffj.2014


An investigation was performed on 124 samples of Sicilian mandarin essential oils (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), industrially cold pressed by different extraction techniques (Brown Oil Extractor and screw press). The samples were collected during the entire productive season (from September 2008 to March 2009). The aim of the study was to determine the composition of the volatile fraction by GC/FID and GC/MS-LRI, of the non-volatile oxygen heterocyclic components by RP-HPLC/PDA and LCMS-IT-TOF, as well as the determination of the enantiomeric ratios of some volatile components by multidimensional GC (MDGC) with chiral column in the second dimension. Three new components were identified by LCMS-IT-TOF in the non-volatile fraction (demethyl-nobiletin, isosinensetin, demethyl-tangeretin). The results obtained are discussed to evaluate seasonal variation of the composition of the essential oil as well as the influence of the extraction techniques. This study gives a wide view on the composition of Sicilian mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.) essential oils industrially produced during the entire productive season, useful to identify quality parameters for the analytical characterization of this product. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Available from: Marina Russo, Oct 13, 2015
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    • "However, there have been few research projects focusing on volatiles during citrus fruit ripening. Dugo et al. [13] investigated the seasonal variation of the chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the whole fruit of two cultivars of Sicilian mandarin (Citrus. deliciosa Tenore. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90-90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63-69.71%), β-pinene (0.63-31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04-9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23-9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81-69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01-26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53-14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52-86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.
    The Scientific World Journal 05/2012; 2012(4):528593. DOI:10.1100/2012/528593 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "Two compounds were obtained from Scleria striatinux. The structures of the isolated compounds (Figure 3) were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those reported for Okundoperoxide (1) [7], matairesinol dimethyl ether (2) [16], 5-demethyltangeretin(3) [17], stigmasterol (4) [18], bursehernin (5) [16], hexadecanoic acid (6) [19] and linoleic acid (7) [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The global burden of bacterial infections is high and has been further aggravated by increasing resistance to antibiotics. In the search for novel antibacterials, three medicinal plants: Peperomia vulcanica, Peperomia fernandopoioana (Piperaceae) and Scleria striatinux (Cyperaceae), were investigated for antibacterial activity and toxicity. Crude extracts of these plants were tested by the disc diffusion method against six bacterial test organisms followed by bio-assay guided fractionation, isolation and testing of pure compounds. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were measured by the microdilution method. The acute toxicity of the active extracts and cytotoxicity of the active compound were performed in mice and mammalian cells, respectively. The diameter of the zones of inhibition (DZI) of the extracts ranged from 7-13 mm on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus of which the methylene chloride:methanol [1:1] extract of Scleria striatinux recorded the highest activity (DZI = 13 mm). Twenty-nine pure compounds were screened and one, Okundoperoxide, isolated from S. striatinux, recorded a DZI ranging from 10-19 mm on S. aureus. The MICs and MBCs indicated that the Peperomias had broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity. Toxicity tests showed that Okundoperoxide may have a low risk of toxicity with an LC50 of 46.88 μg/mL. The antibacterial activity of these plants supports their use in traditional medicine. The pure compound, Okundoperoxide, may yield new antibacterial lead compounds following medicinal chemistry exploration.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 05/2012; 11(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1476-0711-11-10 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, a temporary crisis in the world production of acetonitrile caused the abnormal increase of the price of this substance, commonly used as a solvent and in high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation as a mobile phase. For this reason, a new HPLC method was developed to analyze the oxygen heterocyclic components of Citrus oils, substituting acetonitrile with methanol. The new method described in this article was validated, new components were isolated and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and others were synthesized, to obtain pure standards, not commercially available. The results are evaluated in comparison with methods previously developed. Seven genuine cold-pressed Citrus essential oils – lemon (C. limon (L.) Burm.), Key lime (C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swing.) type B, bergamot (C. bergamia), grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.), bitter orange (C. aurantium L.), sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.) – were analyzed under identical conditions. In conclusion, it was observed that the replacement of acetonitrile with methanol in the mobile phase and the increase of the column temperature (from 30 to 40°C) led to a better separation in terms of resolution and total analysis time. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were comparable with methods previously developed with acetonitrile in the mobile phase.
    Journal of Essential Oil Research 04/2012; 24(2):119-129. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2012.659523 · 0.79 Impact Factor
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