Analytical characterization of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) essential oil
ABSTRACT An investigation was performed on 124 samples of Sicilian mandarin essential oils (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), industrially cold pressed by different extraction techniques (Brown Oil Extractor and screw press). The samples were collected during the entire productive season (from September 2008 to March 2009). The aim of the study was to determine the composition of the volatile fraction by GC/FID and GC/MS-LRI, of the non-volatile oxygen heterocyclic components by RP-HPLC/PDA and LCMS-IT-TOF, as well as the determination of the enantiomeric ratios of some volatile components by multidimensional GC (MDGC) with chiral column in the second dimension. Three new components were identified by LCMS-IT-TOF in the non-volatile fraction (demethyl-nobiletin, isosinensetin, demethyl-tangeretin). The results obtained are discussed to evaluate seasonal variation of the composition of the essential oil as well as the influence of the extraction techniques. This study gives a wide view on the composition of Sicilian mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.) essential oils industrially produced during the entire productive season, useful to identify quality parameters for the analytical characterization of this product. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article: EVALUATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-COMBUSTION-ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-C-IRMS) FOR THE QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF CITRUS LIQUEURS.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Citrus liqueurs are alcoholic beverages obtained by maceration. The European Parliament protects these alcoholic beverages forbidding the addition of nature-identical flavouring substances. However, for economical and technological reasons, producers often add natural and/or synthetic flavours to the alcoholic syrup, obtaining artificial spirit drinks. The aim of this study is to investigate the authenticity of Italian liqueurs, of lemon, bergamot and mandarin (locally known as "limoncello", "bargamino" and "mandarinetto") comparing the carbon isotope ratios with values determined in genuine cold-pressed peel oils. Authenticity assessment was performed using Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction coupled to Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Additional analyses were performed by direct Enantioselective Gas Chromatography, to determine the enantiomeric distribution of selected chiral volatiles and by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the qualitative analyses of the samples. The method allowed to unveil sophistication and confirm genuineness. Es-GC analyses confirmed the results demonstrating the reliability of the method.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor