Analytical characterization of mandarin (Citru deliciosa Ten) essential oil

Università Campus Biomedico Via A. del Portillo 21 – 00128 Rome, Italy
Flavour and Fragrance Journal (Impact Factor: 1.97). 01/2011; 26(1):34 - 46. DOI: 10.1002/ffj.2014


An investigation was performed on 124 samples of Sicilian mandarin essential oils (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), industrially cold pressed by different extraction techniques (Brown Oil Extractor and screw press). The samples were collected during the entire productive season (from September 2008 to March 2009). The aim of the study was to determine the composition of the volatile fraction by GC/FID and GC/MS-LRI, of the non-volatile oxygen heterocyclic components by RP-HPLC/PDA and LCMS-IT-TOF, as well as the determination of the enantiomeric ratios of some volatile components by multidimensional GC (MDGC) with chiral column in the second dimension. Three new components were identified by LCMS-IT-TOF in the non-volatile fraction (demethyl-nobiletin, isosinensetin, demethyl-tangeretin). The results obtained are discussed to evaluate seasonal variation of the composition of the essential oil as well as the influence of the extraction techniques. This study gives a wide view on the composition of Sicilian mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.) essential oils industrially produced during the entire productive season, useful to identify quality parameters for the analytical characterization of this product. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    • "However, there have been few research projects focusing on volatiles during citrus fruit ripening. Dugo et al. [13] investigated the seasonal variation of the chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the whole fruit of two cultivars of Sicilian mandarin (Citrus. deliciosa Tenore. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90-90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63-69.71%), β-pinene (0.63-31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04-9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23-9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81-69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01-26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53-14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52-86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.
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    • "Two compounds were obtained from Scleria striatinux. The structures of the isolated compounds (Figure 3) were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those reported for Okundoperoxide (1) [7], matairesinol dimethyl ether (2) [16], 5-demethyltangeretin(3) [17], stigmasterol (4) [18], bursehernin (5) [16], hexadecanoic acid (6) [19] and linoleic acid (7) [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Citrus as many other plants present characteristic distribution of some enantiomers, thus it is often possible to use this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness, and pharmacological activity assessment. In particular, it is possible to reveal adulteration of different nature, such as addition of synthetic compounds, or natural components of different botanical origin, with drastic changes in the biological and olfactory properties. This study is focused on the evaluation of the enantiomeric excesses of numerous samples of different Citrus species: C. deliciosa Ten., C. limon (L.) Burm., C. bergamia, C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swing., C. latifolia Tan., C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck, and C. aurantium L. The enantiomeric distribution is determined by direct esGC and, depending on the complexity of the essential oil, by MDGC with a chiral column in the second dimension. The research is focused on the determination of fourteen chiral components which present specific distribution in the essential oils investigated. Particular attention is given to the trend of the enantiomeric distribution during the productive season, so to identify useful parameters for quality assessment also in consideration of the wide range of variability often reported in literature. The components investigated were the following: α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, limonene, linalool, camphor, citronellal, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol. The use of MDGC allowed the separation of the enantiomers of camphor and citronellal, otherwise not separated by conventional esGC; however for the separation of the enantiomers of α-pinene it was preferable to use conventional esGC. The MDGC system allowed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of camphene, α- and β-phellandrene in lime essential oil for the first time. The results are discussed in function of seasonal variation and, when possible, in function of the extraction technology, with particular regards to lime oils.
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