An Oxygen‐Insensitive Reagentless Glucose Biosensor Based on Osmium‐Complex Modified Polypyrrole

Electroanalysis (Impact Factor: 2.14). 11/2000; 12(17):1383 - 1389. DOI: 10.1002/1521-4109(200011)12:17<1383::AID-ELAN1383>3.0.CO;2-0


An optimized material for the development of reagentless oxygen-independent biosensors based on conducting polymers is described. Considering the prerequisites for a fast electron transfer between a redox enzyme and the electrode surface via an electron-hopping mechanism, an Os-complex-modified pyrrole derivative with a long, flexible spacer chain has been synthesized. Copolymerization of the new mediator-modified pyrrole monomer with pyrrole was optimized aiming on a higher mediator loading in the film. The feasibility of this material for the development of reagentless oxygen-independent biosensors is demonstrated by entrapment of a PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase isolated from Erwinia sp. 34-1 within this electrochemically grown redox-polymer network.

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    • "However, the oxidation of other mono-and disaccharides occur with lower catalytic efficiencies. Therefore, this system could be used for the analysis of a single sugar in different samples where glucose is a major constituent including biological fluids [18] [19]. For the adequate immobilization of an enzyme to an electrode and in order to obtain a substrate- A C C E P T E D M A N U S C R I P T "
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    ABSTRACT: A miniaturized biofuel cell (BFC) is powering an electrolyser invoking a glucose concentration dependent formation of a dye which can be determined spectrophotometrically. This strategy enables instrument free analyte detection using the analyte-dependent BFC current for triggering an optical read-out system. A screen-printed electrode (SPE) was used for the immobilization of the enzymes glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) for the biocatalytic oxidation of glucose and reduction of molecular oxygen, respectively. The miniaturized BFC was switched-on using small sample volumes (ca. 60μL) leading to an open-circuit voltage of 567mV and a maximal power density of (6.8±0.6) μWcm(-2). The BFC power was proportional to the glucose concentration in a range from 0.1 to 1.0mM (R(2)=0.991). In order to verify the potential instrument-free analyte detection the BFC was directly connected to an electrochemical cell comprised of an optically-transparent SPE modified with methylene green (MG). The reduction of the electrochromic reporter compound invoked by the voltage and current flow applied by the BFC let to MG discoloration, thus allowing the detection of glucose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 04/2015; 106(Pt A). DOI:10.1016/j.bioelechem.2015.04.003
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    • "An alternative to the direct electron transfer is the mediator when electrons migrate to or from the oxidized or reduced enzyme active site, respectively, via a low molecular weight redox active molecule with a proper reduction potential. Some mediators have been involved, such as ferroncene and its derivatives [76, 77], phenazine methosulfate [78], benzoquinone [79], N-methylphenazinium [80], Au nanoparticles [81], cytochrome b562 [82], osmium-complexes [83, 84], electroconducting polymers [85] and ruthenium (II/III) complexes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future.
    Sensors 04/2008; 8(4). DOI:10.3390/s8042043
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    • "Different types of enzymes were applied in the design of catalytic–electrochemical sensors, but it is evident that the most promising approach for the development of electrochemical biosensors is to establish direct electrical communication between the biomolecules and the electrode surface [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. Here conducting polymers [3], redox polymers [4] [5] [6] [7] and soluble [7] [8] [9] or covalently attached to enzyme redox mediators [10] were applied as electron transfer shuttles that enable direct amperometric signal detection. Further methodology of amperometric biosensor development involves the application of redox enzymes for the targeted oxidation/reduction of analytes at the electrode supports and the generation of the electrical signal output. "
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes, which exhibit redox properties and are able to directly exchange electrons with conducting materials, are currently of special interest in the fields of biosensorics and bioelectronics. The detection of new electronic properties makes them even more attractive for these growing fields. Quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (QH-ADH) from Gluconobacter sp. 33 was demonstrated as ‘nano-sized electrical power generator’ able to separate the electrical charges and generate a measurable electrical potential. This phenomenon was investigated potentiometrically in electrochemical system where QH-ADH was applied as the catalyst oxidizing ethanol thereby converting the energy of this chemical reaction to an electrical potential. A basic immobilization technique based on cross-linking with glutaraldehyde was applied for the immobilization of QH-ADH onto a carbon rod. The maximal open circuit potential generated by QH-ADH immobilized on carbon rod electrode was −115 mV versus an inactivated QH-ADH-modified electrode (Inactiv-ADH/carbon). If 10 mM of redox mediator K3[Fe(CN)6] was added to the solution the potential rose to −190 mV versus Inactiv-ADH/carbon. The influence of concentration of Na acetate buffer, pH 6.0, on registered potential was approximately at the same level as the influence of KCl concentration (influence of ionic strength). This result implies that local pH changes do not play a significant role in the development of QH-ADH-modified carbon electrode potential. The potentiometric signal was more stable than amperometric signal based on the same QH-ADH-modified carbon electrode. The ability to directly generate electric potential opens new opportunities for the application of QH-ADH and other direct electron transfer exhibiting enzymes in the design of new potentiometric sensors, biofuel cells and self-powering bioelectronic devices.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 01/2006; 113(1-113):435-444. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2005.03.081
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