Ethylene Accumulation in Flooded Plants
ABSTRACT Ethylene concentration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cuttings increased 5-fold within 6 h after submersion in distilled water and then declined. When only the basal half of the cutting was steeped in water, ethylene concentration was slightly over half the concentration of the completely submerged cutting. Ethylene concentration also increased when cuttings were wrapped with moist paper tissue. When wrapped with Saran transparent plastic film, ethylene concentration increased continuously for 12 h. When part of the stem of an intact plant was wrapped with Saran, ethylene also increased in that part of the stem. When wrapping was removed or submersion was discontinued, accumulated ethylene in the cuttings decreased, much faster from unwrapped cuttings than from previously submerged ones. During 3 h submersion, ethylene production rate in submerged cuttings was approximately 10% of that for the controls and over 97% ethylene escaped out of the control cuttings while only 22-52% escaped from the submerged cuttings.Water content increased during submersion and decreased when submersion was discontinued. Water content did not change significantly during wrapping, but decreased when the cuttings were unwrapped. High water content in the submerged cuttings was apparently not related to the high ethylene concentration in the cuttings.Causes of ethylene increase in flooded plants were discussed and it was concluded that one of the first and major causes is the accumulation of ethylene in flooded portions of the plants due to the blockade of ethylene escape by water.
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ABSTRACT: Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) and tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) are the predominant tree species in the boreal peatlands of Alberta, Canada, where low nutrient availability, low soil temperature and a high water table limit their growth. Effects of flooding for 28 days on morphological and physiological responses were investigated in greenhouse-grown black spruce and tamarack seedlings in a growth chamber. Flooding reduced root hydraulic conductance, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, and increased water-use efficiency (WUE) and needle electrolyte leakage in both species. Although flooded black spruce seedlings maintained higher net assimilation rates and stomatal conductance than flooded tamarack seedlings, flooded tamarack seedlings were able to maintain higher root hydraulic conductance than flooded black spruce seedlings. Needles of flooded black spruce developed tip necrosis and electrolyte leakage after 14 days of flooding, and these symptoms were subsequently more prominent than in needles of flooded tamarack seedlings. Flooded tamarack seedlings exhibited no visible injury symptoms and developed hypertrophied lenticels at their stem base. Application of exogenous ethylene resulted in a significant reduction in net assimilation, stomatal conductance and root respiration, whereas root hydraulic conductivity increased in both species. Thus, although flooded black spruce seedlings maintained a higher stomatal conductance and net assimilation rate than tamarack seedlings, black spruce did not cope with the deleterious effects of prolonged soil flooding and exogenous ethylene as well as tamarack.Tree Physiology 07/2003; 23(8):545-52. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown increases in the concentration of ethylene in the soil and roots of plants when the soil is water saturated (flooded). In Zea mays L. this occurs in association with an overall reduction in growth but without extensive foliar senescence and in conjunction with the development of an adventitious root system. We have assessed the possibility that ethylene may be involved in these responses to flooding. Mixtures of the gas in air were therefore supplied to the roots and stem-base of Z. mays growing in nutrient solution.Seven or 14 d exposure to ethylene (1 or 5 νl 1−1) inhibited seminal root elongation and growth in dry weight and accelerated the emergence of adventitious roots, although their final length and dry weight were depressed. Leaf extension was inhibited by 0.1,1.0 or 5.0 μl 1−1 ethylene around the roots; leaves extending rapidiy at the start of treatment were the most sensitive. Final shoot fresh and dry weights were depressed by the gas but tie shootrroot dry weighl ratio and percentage dry matter were not affected greatly. Leaf chlorosis was not observed but the concentration of phosphorus in the shoots was 26 to 31% below normal.When aeration of the nutrient solution was stopped, the concentration of dissolved oxygen declined and the concentration of ethylene in the roots increased. Similar changes occur in response to soil flooding. Root and shoot growth was slowed by non-aeration although the shootroot dry weight ratio remained unchanged. The phosphorus concentration of the shoots was depressed but there was little chlorosis or leaf death. The similarity in these respects between the effects of ethylene and non-aeration suggests that in flooded Z. mays, ethylene contributes to their development by accelerating the emergence of adventitioos roots, inhibiting phosphorus accumulation in the shoots and by a non-toxic inhibition of plant growth.Physiologia Plantarum 04/2006; 52(1):23 - 28. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Waxapple (Syzygium samarangense Men. et. Perry) plants receiving up to 40d of continuous flooding treatment showed no symptoms of physiological disorder, but the treatment resulted in early flowering. In this report, several physiological parameters of flooded plants are compared with those of nonflooded plants. Both control plants and 9-d-flooding-treated plants exhibited aerenchyma formation in the cortex tissue beginning 5 cm from the root tip. After 7d flooding treatment, the oxygen consumption rate of the root section was only 20% of that of the controls. Following flooding treatment, the roots showed an increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity as well as an increase in three isozymes. However, malate dehydrogenase activity was decreased, and no significant change of NADP-malic enzyme activity was observed. There were no significant differences in levels of ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and 1-(malonylamino) cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in petiole and roots of flooded and non-flooded plants during the stage examined. It is inferred that the presence of aerenchyma in the root cortex allows a higher level of internal gas exchange, and thus, makes waxapple surprisingly flood tolerant. However, reduced root oxygen consumption rate may have limited root respiration rate and vegetative growth.Plant Cell and Environment 04/2006; 15(3):321 - 328. · 5.14 Impact Factor