Ethylene Accumulation in Flooded Plants
ABSTRACT Ethylene concentration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cuttings increased 5-fold within 6 h after submersion in distilled water and then declined. When only the basal half of the cutting was steeped in water, ethylene concentration was slightly over half the concentration of the completely submerged cutting. Ethylene concentration also increased when cuttings were wrapped with moist paper tissue. When wrapped with Saran transparent plastic film, ethylene concentration increased continuously for 12 h. When part of the stem of an intact plant was wrapped with Saran, ethylene also increased in that part of the stem. When wrapping was removed or submersion was discontinued, accumulated ethylene in the cuttings decreased, much faster from unwrapped cuttings than from previously submerged ones. During 3 h submersion, ethylene production rate in submerged cuttings was approximately 10% of that for the controls and over 97% ethylene escaped out of the control cuttings while only 22-52% escaped from the submerged cuttings.Water content increased during submersion and decreased when submersion was discontinued. Water content did not change significantly during wrapping, but decreased when the cuttings were unwrapped. High water content in the submerged cuttings was apparently not related to the high ethylene concentration in the cuttings.Causes of ethylene increase in flooded plants were discussed and it was concluded that one of the first and major causes is the accumulation of ethylene in flooded portions of the plants due to the blockade of ethylene escape by water.
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ABSTRACT: Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) and tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) are the predominant tree species in the boreal peatlands of Alberta, Canada, where low nutrient availability, low soil temperature and a high water table limit their growth. Effects of flooding for 28 days on morphological and physiological responses were investigated in greenhouse-grown black spruce and tamarack seedlings in a growth chamber. Flooding reduced root hydraulic conductance, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, and increased water-use efficiency (WUE) and needle electrolyte leakage in both species. Although flooded black spruce seedlings maintained higher net assimilation rates and stomatal conductance than flooded tamarack seedlings, flooded tamarack seedlings were able to maintain higher root hydraulic conductance than flooded black spruce seedlings. Needles of flooded black spruce developed tip necrosis and electrolyte leakage after 14 days of flooding, and these symptoms were subsequently more prominent than in needles of flooded tamarack seedlings. Flooded tamarack seedlings exhibited no visible injury symptoms and developed hypertrophied lenticels at their stem base. Application of exogenous ethylene resulted in a significant reduction in net assimilation, stomatal conductance and root respiration, whereas root hydraulic conductivity increased in both species. Thus, although flooded black spruce seedlings maintained a higher stomatal conductance and net assimilation rate than tamarack seedlings, black spruce did not cope with the deleterious effects of prolonged soil flooding and exogenous ethylene as well as tamarack.Tree Physiology 07/2003; 23(8):545-52. DOI:10.1093/treephys/23.8.545 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants.Plant and Cell Physiology 11/1996; 37(7):929-34. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a029041 · 4.98 Impact Factor