Ethylene Accumulation in Flooded Plants
ABSTRACT Ethylene concentration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cuttings increased 5-fold within 6 h after submersion in distilled water and then declined. When only the basal half of the cutting was steeped in water, ethylene concentration was slightly over half the concentration of the completely submerged cutting. Ethylene concentration also increased when cuttings were wrapped with moist paper tissue. When wrapped with Saran transparent plastic film, ethylene concentration increased continuously for 12 h. When part of the stem of an intact plant was wrapped with Saran, ethylene also increased in that part of the stem. When wrapping was removed or submersion was discontinued, accumulated ethylene in the cuttings decreased, much faster from unwrapped cuttings than from previously submerged ones. During 3 h submersion, ethylene production rate in submerged cuttings was approximately 10% of that for the controls and over 97% ethylene escaped out of the control cuttings while only 22-52% escaped from the submerged cuttings.Water content increased during submersion and decreased when submersion was discontinued. Water content did not change significantly during wrapping, but decreased when the cuttings were unwrapped. High water content in the submerged cuttings was apparently not related to the high ethylene concentration in the cuttings.Causes of ethylene increase in flooded plants were discussed and it was concluded that one of the first and major causes is the accumulation of ethylene in flooded portions of the plants due to the blockade of ethylene escape by water.
Article: Causes of Centrifugal Root PromotionPhysiologia Plantarum - PHYSIOL PLANT. 01/1971; 25(1):64-70.
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ABSTRACT: The production of ethylene and other hydrocarbon gases by soils under anaerobic conditions was measured by gas chromatography. Ethylene was the only hydrocarbon gas which occurred in physiologically significant concentrations; more than 20 ppm was found in several soils after 10 days at 20°C. These concentrations were considerably higher than those which were known to cause severe reductions in the extension of root axes of some plant species.Experiments with sterilized and unsterilized soil indicated that ethylene was produced by enzyme activity and not by chemical action. The gas was found in soil when the oxygen concentration fell below 2 per cent; total evolution was correlated with organic matter content, and was affected by drying and rewetting and by the growth of plant roots. The rate of production was increased by raising the temperature and by addition of glucose or peptone; high concentrations of nitrate depressed the rate, but sulphate and phosphate had little effect.It is concluded that ethylene may be a significant factor in causing injury to crop plants under waterlogged conditions and also in situations where anaerobic pockets occur within a mainly aerobic soil structure, provided that escape of the gas from the soil is impeded sufficiently to allow inhibitory concentrations to build up in the vicinity of plant roots.European Journal of Soil Science 07/2006; 22(4):430 - 443. · 2.65 Impact Factor
- New Phytologist - NEW PHYTOL. 01/1971; 70(1):85-96.