PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITIES OF PARINARI CURATELIFOLIA, STRYCHNOS SPINOSA AND ADANSONIA DIGITATA
ABSTRACT The phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of Parinari curatelifolia, Strychnos spinosa and Adansonia digitata were determined and compared to orange juice and baobab nectar, a commercial beverage. Methanolic extracts were investigated for their ability to scavenge free radicals by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging assays whilst the β-Carotene Linoleic Acid Model System and inhibition of phosholipid peroxidation were used as model systems. The reducing power assay was used to determine the reducing potential of the extracts.Results showed that the beverages in this investigation were capable of acting as antioxidant sources as they displayed significant radical scavenging properties. Adansonia digitata had the highest and comparable antioxidant activities to Citrus sinensis (orange). The total phenolic, ascorbic acid, proantocyanidin and flavonoid contents ranged between 12 and 58 mg GAE/100 mL, 0.00 to 51.26 mg/100 mL, 0.35–1.071% and 18.3–124 mg/100 mL, respectively. There was a positive correlation between antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds content but there was no clear relationship between proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSFruits contribute significantly to the diets of many rural families in times of famine and they also provide some essential micronutrients. The results obtained in this study showed that fruits are valuable sources of antioxidants and if their consumption is promoted they will go a long way in addressing some problems of malnutrition bedeviling rural communities in Africa.
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ABSTRACT: To identify the key enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), the differences in anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expressions were investigated in the samples (mix of peel and flesh) of a red-colored cultivar (‘Hongdeng’) and a bicolored cultivar (‘Caihong’) during fruit development. The expression of six anthocyanin synthetic genes in cherry (PacCHS, PacCHI, PacF3H, PacDFR, PacANS, and PacUFGT) was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Meanwhile, the changes in anthocyanin contents were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of anthocyanin synthetic genes and the anthocyanin contents were much higher in ‘Hongdeng’ than in ‘Caihong’ fruits. Gene transcription and translation and anthocyanin accumulation all started approximately at the end of the pit-hardening period and reached a maximum at maturation. All six genes were significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Hongdeng’ and PacCHS had the highest direct effect. However, only PacUFGT was significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Caihong’. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweet cherry seems to be regulated mostly at the transcript levels. CHS appears to be the key enzyme involved in anthocyanin synthesis in ‘Hongdeng’, while UFGT is involved in anthocyanin synthesis in ‘Caihong’ fruits.Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 12/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) is a majestic tree revered in Africa for its medicinal and nutritional value. The plant parts are used to treat various ailments such as diarrhoea, malaria and microbial infections. It is reported that it is an excellent anti-oxidant due to the vitamin C content which is seven to ten times higher than the vitamin C content of oranges. Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The seeds are a source of significant quantities of lysine, thiamine, calcium and iron. Baobab is an important commodity which is integral to the livelihood of rural communities. In addition, the global demand for baobab raw material (e.g. seed oil, fruit pulp) by the food and beverage, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries has increased dramatically in recent years thereby increasing the commercial value and importance of this coveted African tree. In the past few years, there has been an increased demand for non-timber forest products (NTFPs), specifically baobab seed oil for inclusion in cosmetic formulations due to its high fatty acid composition. This review summa-rises the botanical aspects, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, biological properties and most importantly the nutritional value and commercial impor-tance of baobab products.