Interrelationship between splanchnic and leg exchange of glucose and other blood‐borne energy metabolites during abdominal surgical trauma

Department of Clinical Physiology, Linkoping University, S-581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
Clinical Physiology 06/2008; 1(1):59 - 72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-097X.1981.tb00874.x

ABSTRACT In eight patients undergoing cholecystectomy, measurements of leg blood flow, splanchnic blood flow and arterio-venous differences in oxygen, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate and alanine were made. Splanchnic glucose release averaged 1 1 mmol/min. The uptake of glucose into leg tissue was low. The rise in arterial glucose concentration was about I mmol/h during surgery. At the end of surgery splanchnic oxygen uptake was increased by 70% and the alanine uptake into the same region was comparable to that described in patients with septic complications of surgery. The plasma insulin concentration was low compared with the arterial glucose level.The data suggest that during abdominal surgery (a) increase in arterial glucose concentration can be fully accounted for by slightly increased splanchnic glucose release and a low peripheral utilization; (b) release of gluconeogenic substrates from peripheral tissues is balanced by splanchnic uptake; (c) disturbed relation between glucose and insulin, enhanced gluconeogenesis, increased splanchnic oxygen uptake and fat-mobilizing lipolysis are in accordance with a raised sympatho-adrenergic activity.

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    ABSTRACT: Abdominal surgery increases blood glucose concentration and peripheral release and splanchnic uptake of gluconeogenic substrates, including alanine. During trauma or sepsis, infusion of glucose fails to depress alanine conversion to glucose. The effect of intra-operative glucose infusion on splanchnic metabolism was examined in the present study. In eight patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy, splanchnic glucose metabolism was investigated before, during and immediately after surgery. Glucose was infused at a constant rate of 1 mmol/min. Splanchnic blood flow and arterio-hepatic venous differences of oxygen, glucose, lactate, glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate and alanine were measured. Eight other patients, who received saline instead of glucose, served as a control group.Infusion of glucose resulted in total inhibition of splanchnic glucose release before as well as during and immediately after surgery. This was observed, even before surgery, at an arterial glucose level which was lower than that in the control group at the end of and immediately after surgery, at which no decrease of the splanchnic glucose release was recorded. Changes in neuronal and hormonal factors due to the surgical trauma are considered responsible for this difference in glucose homeostasis. Splanchnic alanine uptake increased during surgery in both groups, but tended to be somewhat lower in the glucose group. The arterial glycerol concentration and splanchnic uptake, as well as the arterial concentration and splanchnic release of 3-hydroxybutyrate, were reduced. It is concluded that an intravenous infusion of glucose at a rate of 1 mmol/min during abdominal surgery (a) increases the arterial blood glucose level and abolishes splanchnic glucose release, (b) reduces, but does not totally prevent the increase in splanchnic uptake of gluconeogenic substrates, and (c) diminishes lipolysis and the formation of 3-hydroxybutyrate.
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-adrenergic agents are frequently used to improve cardiac performance in surgical and intensive care patients. Beta-adrenergic agents have metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to their cardiovascular effects. Splanchnic metabolic activity increases in response to surgery and inflammation. Dopexamine is believed to favor blood flow distribution to the splanchnic region. We investigated the effect of dopexamine, started before major abdominal surgery, on postoperative patterns of systemic and regional blood flow, metabolic response, and markers of inflammation. Twenty-one patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were studied. All patients were stabilized preoperatively to predefined hemodynamic endpoints with fluids. After preoperative measurement of systemic and splanchnic oxygen transport and splanchnic lactate, glutamine and alanine exchange and blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the patients were randomized to receive an infusion of dopexamine at 0.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) (group 1) or 2.0 microg kg(-1) min(-1) (group 2) or placebo. Measurements were repeated at 6 h and 24 h after the end of the operation and the blood levels of cytokines also at 36 h postoperatively. Dopexamine evoked an increase in cardiac index preoperatively. Postoperatively, there was no difference between the groups in systemic and regional hemodynamics or oxygen transport: cardiac index, splanchnic blood flow and oxygen delivery increased similarly in each group. Accordingly, systemic oxygen extraction decreased. Glutamine, alanine and lactate exchange did not differ between the groups. The only metabolic change was an increased splanchnic uptake of alanine, which also was unaffected by dopexamine. There was no difference between the groups in TNF and IL-6 levels; TNF level did not change, while IL-6 level increased in response to surgery. Dopexamine, when added to a preoperative stabilization protocol with fluids, did not augment the postoperative hemodynamic response, and had no effect on postoperative metabolic and inflammatory responses.
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