Preparation of algal‐oligosaccharide mixtures by bacterial agarases and their antioxidative properties
ABSTRACT Algal-oligosaccharide-lysates (AOL), derived from six agars and four algal polysaccharide extracts (APE), were treated with 100–500 activity units (AU) of MA103-agarases or MAEF108-agarases, and their antioxidative properties evaluated. Soluble total polyphenols (TP) were between 462.2 ± 1.6 gallic acid equivalents (GAE, µg/mL) and 70.6 ± 17.4 GAE. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of all AOL went from 68.3 ± 0.7% to 0.5 ± 0.1%. The ferrous ion chelating capacity of all AOL went from 93.1 ± 0.2% to 21.7 ± 0.9%. Evaluation of the H2O2 scavenging capacity of all AOL was between 35.9 ± 5.4% and 0.1 ± 0.2%. The reducing power of all AOL went from 51.3 ± 2.6 to 3.2 ± 6.8 expressed as µg/mL ascorbic acid. In DPPH radical scavenging capacity, ferrous ion chelating capacity and reducing power etc., the AOL derived from the APE of Porphyra dentate (digested by 500 AU of MAEF108-agarases) were highest, in all test sets. However, the AOL derived from the APE of Monostroma nitidum (digested by 500 AU of MAEF108-agarases) had the highest H2O2 scavenging capacity in all test sets. The order of antioxidative activity performance of all AOL treated in this experiment, by these four antioxidative methods, is as follows: ferrous ion chelating capacity > DPPH radical scavenging capacity > H2O2 scavenging capacity > reducing power; this may be related to their polyphenols, small molecular weight polysaccharides or simple sugar constituents. In this study, it is demonstrated that various agarases derived from algal oligosaccharide mixtures possess good potential for use as a health food, due to their antioxidative capacity.
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ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that UV-radiation can have adverse affects on phototrophic organisms, independent of ozone depletion. The red intertidal seaweed Pyropia cinnamomea W.A. Nelson (previously Porphyra cinnamomea Sutherland et al. 2011), similar to many other intertidal macrophytes, is exposed to high levels of UV-radiation on a daily basis due to emersion in the upper littoral zone. It has been shown that seaweeds, like higher plants, respond with an increased activity of antioxidative enzymes when exposed to stress. However, earlier investigations have shown that P. cinnamomea also compensates for stress due to UV-radiation by increasing polyamine (PA) levels, especially bound-soluble (bs) and bound-insoluble (bis) PAs. The PA precursor putrescine (PUT) can be synthesised via two enzymatic pathways: arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Both of these enzymes showed increased activity in P. cinnamomea under UV stress. In higher plants ADC is the enzyme responsible for increased PA levels during stress exposure, while ODC is correlated to cell division and reproduction. However, there are contrary findings in the literature. By using two irreversible inhibitors we identified the enzyme most likely responsible for increased PUT synthesis and therefore increased stress tolerance in P. cinnamomea. Our results show that changes in the PA synthesis pathway in P. cinnamomea under UV stress is based on an increased activity of ADC. When either inhibitor was added, lipid hydroperoxide levels increased even under PAR, suggesting that PAs are involved in protection mechanisms under normal light conditions as well. We also show that under optimum or low-stress conditions, ODC activity is correlated with PUT synthesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Phycology 04/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
- Botanica Marina 01/2009; 52(3):268-277. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated and purified from the culture filtrate of the photosynthetic green microalgae Haematococcus lacustris by 75% ethanol precipitation and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified polysaccharide (named HCP) was estimated to be approximately 135 kDa by size-exclusion HPLC and its monosaccharide composition was galactose, glucose and mannose at a relative molar ratio of 2.0, 1.0, and 4.1, respectively, suggesting that HCP is a galactomannan. Fourier-transform infrared and elemental analysis revealed that the purified HCP contains sulfate esters by 1.08% (in mass) and no detectable level of protein. The HCP significantly stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in a dose-dependent manner and also enhanced the expression of COX-2 and iNOS genes at a concentration of lower than 10 μg/mL HCP. These results indicated that the sulfated HCP of H. lacustris has potent early innate immune stimulating activities.Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 12/2011; 16(6). · 1.22 Impact Factor