Algal-oligosaccharide-lysates (AOL), derived from six agars and four algal polysaccharide extracts (APE), were treated with 100–500 activity units (AU) of MA103-agarases or MAEF108-agarases, and their antioxidative properties evaluated. Soluble total polyphenols (TP) were between 462.2 ± 1.6 gallic acid equivalents (GAE, µg/mL) and 70.6 ± 17.4 GAE. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of all AOL went from 68.3 ± 0.7% to 0.5 ± 0.1%. The ferrous ion chelating capacity of all AOL went from 93.1 ± 0.2% to 21.7 ± 0.9%. Evaluation of the H2O2 scavenging capacity of all AOL was between 35.9 ± 5.4% and 0.1 ± 0.2%. The reducing power of all AOL went from 51.3 ± 2.6 to 3.2 ± 6.8 expressed as µg/mL ascorbic acid. In DPPH radical scavenging capacity, ferrous ion chelating capacity and reducing power etc., the AOL derived from the APE of Porphyra dentate (digested by 500 AU of MAEF108-agarases) were highest, in all test sets. However, the AOL derived from the APE of Monostroma nitidum (digested by 500 AU of MAEF108-agarases) had the highest H2O2 scavenging capacity in all test sets. The order of antioxidative activity performance of all AOL treated in this experiment, by these four antioxidative methods, is as follows: ferrous ion chelating capacity > DPPH radical scavenging capacity > H2O2 scavenging capacity > reducing power; this may be related to their polyphenols, small molecular weight polysaccharides or simple sugar constituents. In this study, it is demonstrated that various agarases derived from algal oligosaccharide mixtures possess good potential for use as a health food, due to their antioxidative capacity.
"The oligosaccharides with the sulfate group or with higher molecular masses show stronger antioxidative activities than that without the sulfate group or with smaller molecular masses . In a later report, the products mixture containing NA4 and NA6, which digested from algal polysaccharide by crude agarase products from MA103 strain, have shown high anti-oxidative properties by five in vitro methods [55,56]. The result indicates that neoagarooligosaccharide may have potential application in health food. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agarases are the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. They are classified into alpha-agarase (E.C. 184.108.40.206) and beta-agarase (E.C. 220.127.116.11) according to the cleavage pattern. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of bacteria found in seawater and marine sediments, as well as engineered microorganisms. Agarases have wide applications in food industry, cosmetics, and medical fields because they produce oligosaccharides with remarkable activities. They are also used as a tool enzyme for biological, physiological, and cytological studies. The paper reviews the category, source, purification method, major characteristics, and application fields of these native and gene cloned agarases in the past, present, and future.
"As Porphyra, commonly known as nori or laver, is widely used in Asia as part of the human diet, it has been the subject of numerous studies performed in order to identify its functional properties. Several antioxidant molecules have been identified in the genus Porphyra: histidine-related compounds (Tamura et al. 1998), chlorophyll analogs and mycosporine-like amino acids (Nakayama et al. 1999), sulfated polysaccharides (Zhang et al. 2003, 2004) and oligosaccharides (Wu and Pan 2004). It has been suggested that the accumulation of the UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids, such as porphyra-344, provides a photoprotection to P. leucosticta, and thus these compounds may function as biological antioxidants (Dunlap and Yamamoto 1995, Korbee et al. 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from 24 rhodophyte species from Brittany coasts using three complementary methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl, reducing activity, and beta-carotene-linoleic acid system). We also examined phenolic contents. Cytotoxic activities were determined with three different cancer cell lines. Four species (Aglaothamnion pseudobyssoides, Furcellaria fastigiata, Polysiphonia lanosa, and Heterosiphonia plumosa) had high antioxidant activity and high phenolic content. The extract from Brongniartella byssoides had the highest antioxidant potential, which was also found to be equivalent to the antioxidant activities of some commercial antioxidants. In the beta-carotene system, extracts from Porphyra leucosticta and Porphyra purpurea had some specific antioxidant activity. Furthermore, Asparagopsis armata, B. byssoides and H. plumosa extracts had strong cytotoxic activities against Daudi and Jurkat cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two yeast groups, S5: Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae BCRC21686 and S. cerevisiae BCRC21962, and S6: S. cere-visiae BCRC21824 and S. cerevisiae BCRC21962, were used to ferment Monostroma (M.) nitidum hydrolysate (MNH) solution under various conditions, such as (1) M. nitidum powder; (2) carbon source; (3) nitrogen source; and (4) yeast group inoculation concentrations, respectively, at 25°C in a 10-day M. nitidum wine study. First, the 2.5% M. nitidum powder particles in the MNH solution elicited better alcohol content than the other concentrations did. Then, the 15% sucrose and 0.500% proline in the MNH solution produced good alcohol content in a carbon source and a nitrogen source, respectively. The S5 and S6 groups also showed improved alcohol content in the yeast group inoculation concentration of 4%. Therefore, we combined these conditions to out carry M. nitidum wine fermentation on days 0, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18, or 21. The M. nitidum wines with 10%, 15%, or 20% sucrose ferment showed good alcohol and compositional changes after 7, 10, or 14 days, respectively. During the 3 months of aging, the influence on the alcohol content, pH value, titratable acidity, reducing sugar content and residual sugar content caused by storage temperatures at 15°C and 25°C on the components of M. nitidum wines were not observed. The M. nitidum wines aged at 25°C showed lower Hunter L, a, and b values than did the M. nitidum wines aged at 15°C. Overall, sensory evalua-tions showed the best M. nitidum wines were fermented with 20% sucrose added to the M. nitidum wine substrate at 25°C and then aged at 15°C for 3 months. M. nitidum wine can be further studied in the field of M. nitidum wine manufacturing.
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