EDNRB gene variants and melanoma risk in two southern European populations
ABSTRACT Background. EDNRB gene variants were reported to be associated with melanoma risk in French patients, with the S305N variant showing the highest frequency.Aim. To verify the S305N association with melanoma risk in an independent larger French population (378 patients, 389 controls); to investigate the role of EDNRB variants in melanoma risk in an Italian population (133 patients, 118 controls); and to explore the association of CDKN2A or CDK4 mutations with the S305N EDNRB variant in a subgroup of patients (59 French, 12 Italian) with a suspected hereditary predisposition to melanoma (familial melanoma, sporadic multiple primary melanoma or melanoma associated with pancreatic cancer).Methods. The S305N variant was genotyped in the French population, while the EDNRB gene in the Italian population was entirely sequenced.Results. Overall, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the S305N variant between patients with sporadic melanoma and controls in either the French or the Italian population. However, a significantly higher S305N allele frequency was detected in French patients with a suspected hereditary predisposition to melanoma compared with controls (P = 0.04). In addition, in this subgroup of patients, the S305N allele was also significantly associated with the presence of CDKN2A mutations (P = 0.04).Conclusions. Our results showed no evidence of association of the S305N EDNRB polymorphism with sporadic melanoma risk in either the French or Italian populations, but there was an indication that EDNRB might be a melanoma-predisposing gene in French patients with a suspected hereditary predisposition to melanoma.
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ABSTRACT: Since embryonic development and tumorigenesis share common characteristics, studying the role of genes during development can identify molecules that have similar functions in both processes. C-kit and Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB or ETRB) are crucial for melanocyte development in mice and humans but have different functions. While c-kit is needed for survival throughout development until late stages of differentiation in the skin, EDNRB promotes early expansion and migration while delaying the differentiation of melanocyte precursors. Transformation of normal melanocytes to melanoma cells is often associated with gradual loss of differentiation and the gain of high autonomous capacity to proliferate. In accordance with their different roles, c-kit expression is gradually lost during melanoma transformation, while that of EDNRB is greatly enhanced and can serve as a marker of melanoma progression. Inhibiting EDNRB function with a specific antagonist (BQ788) in human melanoma cell lines results in inhibition of growth often associated with induced differentiation indicating that, during melanoma transformation also, the function of EDNRB is to promote growth. EDNRB function does not seem to be essential in the adult, as BQ788 administration to healthy people does not result in major effects. This is probably why BQ788 can specifically inhibit the growth of xenograft human melanoma tumors in nude mice, in a way resembling spontaneous human melanoma regression and why it could serve as a potential therapeutic agent for melanoma.The International Journal of Developmental Biology 02/2005; 49(2-3):173-80. DOI:10.1387/ijdb.041951rl · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The endothelin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in melanocyte differentiation and migration. In this study, we investigated whether germline mutations of endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), a gene involved in Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), could also predispose for malignant melanoma (MM). The coding region of EDNRB was sequenced in 137 MM patients and in 130 ethnically matched Caucasian control subjects. Six nonsynonymous EDNRB variants were found in 15 patients (11%), but only two were found in four control subjects (3%, odds ratio [OR] = 3.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 12; P = .012). Overall, 14 out of 15 MM patients carried EDNRB mutations reported in HSCR, some of which had previously been shown to lead to loss of function. In multivariable logistic regression analysis including skin type, eye and hair color, number of nevi, and dorsal lentigines (freckles), the association between EDNRB mutations and MM risk remained statistically significant (OR = 19.9, 95% CI = 1.34 to 296.2; P = .03). Our data strongly suggest that EDNRB is involved in predisposition for two different multigenic disorders, HSCR and melanoma.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 10/2005; 97(17):1297-301. DOI:10.1093/jnci/dji253 · 14.07 Impact Factor
CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 10/2006; 98(17):1252-3; author reply 1253. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djj336 · 14.07 Impact Factor