Three novel insecticides, pyriproxyfen, spinosad and tebufenozide, were evaluated for their effect on survival and reproduction of Chrysoperla carnea adults using two methods of exposure: direct contact and ingestion. Pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide proved to be harmless to adult survival, whereas spinosad 72 h after treatment reduced the number of adults by 39.8% and 87.2% in topical and ingestion treatment at the maximum concentration recommended (800 mg a.i. litre−1). Fecundity was not affected irrespective of the insecticide or time of application (before or after the onset of oviposition). Concerning fertility, only pyriproxyfen exerted a negative effect on hatching when the eggs were deposited by females treated by ingestion in the post-oviposition period at the highest concentration tested (150 mg a.i. litre−1).
"In aphid control, the larvae of chrysopids are efficient natural enemies because of their prey searching activity and predatory capacity (Fonseca et al 2000, Medina et al 2003). In the Neotropical region, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is widely found due to "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) while feeding on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) acting as a vector of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). In laboratory experiments, three different diets were offered ad libitum to C. externa during the larval period: M. persicae fed on PLRV-infected potato leaves, M. persicae fed on uninfected potato leaves, and eggs of the factitious prey Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as the control. The following parameters were studied: the developmental time and survival rate of the larval and pupal stages, the sex ratio, the proportion of fertile females, female fecundity and egg viability, and the survival curve of the first 30 days after adult emergence. PLRV-infected aphids influenced the C. externa larval developmental time and survival compared to PLRV-uninfected aphids and A. kuehniella eggs. The pupal developmental time of C. externa was shorter when fed on aphids compared to A. kuehniella eggs, but no differences were recorded between the PLRV-infected and uninfected aphid diets. Additionally, no differences were observed for pupal survival and reproduction. However, adult survival was affected by the prey type, as 75% of C. externa control adults remained alive at an age of 30 days compared to 51 and 54% for those fed on PLRV-uninfected and infected aphids, respectively.
"In the field, all development stages (eggs, larvae, pupae , and adults) of C. cubana may be exposed to the action of the insecticides (Schuster and Stansly 2000). However, most of the selectivity studies, have focused on lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides to larvae and adults (Medina et al. 2003, Gontijo et al. 2014), but few studies have evaluated these effects on eggs and pupae of lacewings, whose life stages have been considered more tolerant to insecticides (Schuster and Stansly 2000, Giolo et al. 2009). This proposed tolerance is primarily based on the percentages of hatching and emergence observed after the application of pesticides . "
"Because the spread of viruses seems to be correlated with the foraging habits of natural enemies (Smyrnioudis et al., 2001; Belliure et al., 2011), the objective of this study was to determine the dissemination of CMV by A. gossypii in the absence and presence of the following two predators: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae and adult Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). C. carnea larvae are very mobile and voracious polyphagous predators in many agricultural systems (Viñuela et al., 1996; Medina et al., 2003) and one of the indicator species considered for higher testing in the EU for pesticide registration (Candolfi et al., 2001). A. bipunctata adults are generalist aphidophagous predators with a wide range of prey (Omkar & Pervez, 2005). "
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