Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (Impact Factor: 0.45). 09/2007; 31(5):531 - 545. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2007.00140.x

ABSTRACT Black carrot juice concentrate was added to enhance the color of strawberry jams prepared from two locally grown cultivars, Osmanlı and Kara. Compared to other cultivars processed to jams, these two cultivars are lightly colored but very aromatic. Color and pigment stability of colored and noncolored (control) strawberry jams were studied during storage. The use of black carrot concentrate as a source of natural colorant stabilized the color of strawberry jam. The stabilization was more noticeable for jams prepared from Osmanlı cultivar. Monomeric anthocyanin degradation was fitted to a first-order reaction model. Storage temperature had a strong influence on anthocyanin degradation. As the storage temperature increased, the stability of anthocyanins decreased significantly in both colored and noncolored jams. Parallel to decrease in monomeric anthocyanins, hue (h°) values of all jam samples increased throughout the storage. However, increase in h° values was much smaller in colored samples than in noncolored samples. High correlation was found between h° value and anthocyanin concentration at 22C (r = 0.910–0.978) and 37C (r = 0.931–0.981).

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    ABSTRACT: Strawberry purées were prepared using a commercial polygalacturonase (PG) and a highly purified pectinesterase (PE) preparation, respectively. To elucidate the effect of pectin on color stability following enzymatic pulp maceration, pectin composition was studied by isolating and fractionating the alcohol-insoluble residue from the strawberry purées. The purées were stored at +20 and +4 °C in the dark over a period of 24 weeks monitoring the amounts of monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins as well as antioxidant activities (FRAP, TEAC). Individual anthocyanins were analyzed by HPLC–DAD–MSn , and color measurements were obtained in the CIE L*a*b* system. Pectin composition was significantly modified following enzymatic maceration of the purées. While PG treatment generally resulted in pectin losses, oxalate-soluble pectins were increased in PE-treated purées. After 24 weeks of storage, the best anthocyanin retention was observed in PE-treated purées. Such products also revealed greatest anthocyanin half-life values and lowest proportion of polymeric pigments. Compared to an untreated control, enzymatic purée maceration using the PG was also beneficial for pigment retention, but less effective than PE. In contrast, color and antioxidant activity were independent of both enzymatic treatments. An initial heating step (90 °C, 10 s) for immediate inactivation of native enzymes such as polyphenoloxidases slightly improved pigment stability, while lowered temperature during mash maceration was less effective. However, by far best color and pigment retention were achieved when the purées were stored at 4 °C in the dark.
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    ABSTRACT: In this research, traditional Turkish delight (lokum) was colored with black carrot juice concentrate, and the variations in anthocyanin content, during storage at different temperatures (12, 20 and 30C) for 5‐month periods, were observed by spectrophotometer and high‐performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of kinetic data suggested a first‐order reaction for the degradation of black carrot anthocyanins in Turkish delight. Degradation rates of anthocyanins of black carrot increased with increasing temperature. It was determined that the degradation rate of black carrot anthocyanins during the storage period at 12C increased faster than that of the other temperatures (20 and 30C). The k values for 12, 20 and 30C were found to be 6.91 × 10 −3 , 4.21 × 10 −3 and 9.21 × 10 −3 /day, respectively. Effects of pH on the thermal stability of black carrot anthocyanins were also determined. Results showed that the stability of anthocyanins decreased as the pH value increased. Increase in pH values correlated well with the decrease in anthocyanin content of the samples during storage. In all of the samples, redness (a*) decreased during the storage at all temperatures; however, lightness (L*) increased. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSMost of commercial anthocyanins used as a colorant in foods are obtained from fruits or vegetables such as: red grape, elderberry, blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, black chokeberry, red cabbage, black carrot, purple corn, red radish and purple sweet potato.Turkish delight (lokum), one of the most popular traditional food products in Turkey, is a famous Turkish desert known all over the world. Lokum is produced by using sugar, water, starch, citric acid, aromatic compounds, dried fruits and natural colorant. The color of foods, which is one of the initial properties noticed in foods, is one of the most important quality parameters affecting consumers. Because of consumer anxiety over the safety of synthetic food colorants, the demand for natural food colorants has increased. Particularly, there is an increasing request for natural red food colorants as alternatives to the most commonly used synthetic red colorant. Therefore, the availability and the suitability of black carrot juice concentrate as a natural colorant instead of synthetic colorants which are considered to have some negative properties for human health was investigated by this work.
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