The control of the botulism hazard in hot‐smoked trout and mackerel
Torry Research Station, 135 Abbey Road, Aberdeen AB9 8DG, Scotland.International Journal of Food Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 1.38). 06/2007; 14(2):123 - 129. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1979.tb00856.x
The growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum types B, C, E and F in hot-smoked trout and mackerel has been studied. Using whole trout which were naturally contaminated with Cl. botulinum type E it was established that salt was the major inhibiting factor; a minimum concentration of 2.5% salt-on-water phase prevented the production of toxin for 30 days when fish were stored at 10°C. When whole and minced fish were inoculated with spores of Cl. botulinum types, B, E and F at a concentration considerably higher than that found in nature (102g−1) a minimum salt concentration of 3% was required to achieve a similar effect. Further studies using trout which were inoculated with suspensions of a number of strains of Cl. botulinum containing both spores and vegetative cells (102g−1) showed that fish smoked to produce a minimal salt concentration of 3% had a safe shelf life of 30 days at 10°C and 1 day at 20°C.
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ABSTRACT: Non-proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum are capable of growth at chill temperatures and thus pose a potential hazard in minimally-processed chilled foods. The combined effect of pH (5.0-7.3), NaCl concentration (0.1-5.0%) and temperature (4-30 degrees C) on growth of non-proteolytic C. botulinum in laboratory media was studied. Growth curves at various combinations of pH, NaCl concentration and temperature were fitted by the Gompertz and Baranyi models, and parameters derived from the curve-fit were modelled. Predictions of growth from the models were compared with data in the literature and this showed them to be suitable for use with fish, meat and poultry products. This model should contribute to ensuring the safety of minimally-processed foods with respect to non-proteolytic C. botulinum.International Journal of Food Microbiology 09/1996; 31(1-3):69-85. DOI:10.1016/0168-1605(96)00965-8 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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