The control of the botulism hazard in hot‐smoked trout and mackerel
ABSTRACT The growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum types B, C, E and F in hot-smoked trout and mackerel has been studied. Using whole trout which were naturally contaminated with Cl. botulinum type E it was established that salt was the major inhibiting factor; a minimum concentration of 2.5% salt-on-water phase prevented the production of toxin for 30 days when fish were stored at 10°C. When whole and minced fish were inoculated with spores of Cl. botulinum types, B, E and F at a concentration considerably higher than that found in nature (102g−1) a minimum salt concentration of 3% was required to achieve a similar effect. Further studies using trout which were inoculated with suspensions of a number of strains of Cl. botulinum containing both spores and vegetative cells (102g−1) showed that fish smoked to produce a minimal salt concentration of 3% had a safe shelf life of 30 days at 10°C and 1 day at 20°C.
Article: Two cases of botulism.The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 05/1958; 75(2):482-5.
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ABSTRACT: UNLIKE other areas of the world, such as the United States, Japan and Scandinavia, the British Isles, until recently, appeared to be free from the presence of Clostridium botulinum type E. Early surveys by Meyer and Dubovsky1, Leighton and Buxton2, Haines3, and more recently by Dolman4 and Cann et al.5, failed to demonstrate its presence either in soil in the British Isles or in sea muds and fish from traditional British fishing grounds. A recent examination by Hobbs et al.6 of more than two hundred commercial vacuum-packed fish purchased in the United Kingdom and of the intestines of a hundred fresh North Sea herring gave no toxic samples. Nevertheless, type E botulism could arise from the ingestion of fish imported from areas where there is a high incidence of Cl. botulinum type E.5,7.Nature 08/1966; 211(5045):205-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor