The biology of cartilage. I. Invertebrate cartilages: Limulus gill cartilage
ABSTRACT The endoskeletal structure supporting the gill-books of Limulus polyphemus has been investigated by means of light and electron microscopy, chemical analysis and x-ray diffraction. This tissue is a cartilage which has significant correspondences with both vertebrate cartilage and plant tissues. Morphologically, the Limulus cartilage resembles certain cellular vertebrate cartilages with relatively scant matrix, and also certain plant parenchyme, collenchyme and sclerenchyme tissues. Of particular interest, was the observation that during cytoplasmic division, a phragmasome-like structure appears between the daughter cells of the dividing gill cartilage cells. This phragmasome-like structure appears to be a precursor of new matrix (cell-wall) formation between the young chondrocytes, in much the same fashion as its counterpart in plant tissues. Perichondrial cells and underlying chondrocytes contain lipid droplets, abundant glycogen and ribosomes, as do corresponding vertebrate cartilage cells. In some of the Limulus cells, glycogen and ribosomes appear to be admixed with lipid, forming aggregates in which all three materials are in intimate intraparticulate relationship. During molting, the number of ribosomes seen in chondrocytes increases. The tissue contains both hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, and gives a weak x-ray diffraction pattern.
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ABSTRACT: The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM) and scorpion book lungs (TEM) are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders) between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM) of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous and terrestrial. For scorpion book lungs, the invaginated precursor cells align in rows and secrete rows of cell fragments that are the basis for the internal, anterior-directed air sacs. The hemolymph sacs of book gills are formed by epithelial evagination or outfolding from the posterior surface of the branchial appendages.Frontiers in Zoology 03/2012; 9(1):4. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissues similar to vertebrate cartilage have been described throughout the Metazoa. Often the designation of tissues as cartilage within non-vertebrate lineages is based upon sparse supporting data. To be considered cartilage, a tissue should meet a number of histological criteria that include composition and organization of the extracellular matrix. To re-evaluate the distribution and structural properties of these tissues, we have re-investigated the histological properties of many of these tissues from fresh material, and review the existing literature on invertebrate cartilages. Chondroid connective tissue is common amongst invertebrates, and differs from invertebrate cartilage in the structure and organization of the cells that comprise it. Groups having extensive chondroid connective tissue include brachiopods, polychaetes, and urochordates. Cartilage is found within cephalopod mollusks, chelicerate arthropods and sabellid polychaetes. Skeletal tissues found within enteropneust hemichordates are unique in that the extracellular matrix shares many properties with vertebrate cartilage, yet these tissues are completely acellular. The possibility that this tissue may represent a new category of cartilage, acellular cartilage, is discussed. Immunoreactivity of some invertebrate cartilages with antibodies that recognize molecules specific to vertebrate bone suggests an intermediate phenotype between vertebrate cartilage and bone. Although cartilage is found within a number of invertebrate lineages, we find that not all tissues previously reported to be cartilage have the appropriate properties to merit their distinction as cartilage.Zoology 02/2004; 107(4):261-73. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Connective tissues are responsible for much of the variation in morphology that we see today. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is often considered to be restricted to vertebrates, however, cartilaginous tissues are also found within invertebrates. Unfortunately, most definitions and classification schemes for cartilages suffer from a strong vertebrate bias, severely hampering the efforts of those who have attempted to include invertebrate tissues as cartilage. To encompass all types of cartilage, current classification systems need to be expanded. Here we present vesicular cell-rich as a new cartilage classification. Invertebrate cartilages, comparable to vertebrate cartilages at both cell and tissue levels, are composed of similar molecules, yet the extent to which they may be homologous is unknown. One option for studying the evolution of tissues is to adopt molecular phylogenetic approaches. However, the paucity of published molecular data makes addressing the evolution of cartilage using molecular phylogenetic approaches unrealistic at this time. Cartilage likely evolved from a chondroid connective tissue precursor, and may have been independently derived many times. The appearance of cartilaginous tissues of unknown phylogenetic affinities in such a wide diversity of animal groups warrants further investigation.Acta Zoologica 08/2004; 85(2):69 - 80. · 1.47 Impact Factor