Article

The biology of cartilage. I. Invertebrate cartilages: Limulus gill cartilage

Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California 94035; The Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543
Journal of Morphology (Impact Factor: 1.6). 02/2005; 128(1):67 - 93. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.1051280104

ABSTRACT The endoskeletal structure supporting the gill-books of Limulus polyphemus has been investigated by means of light and electron microscopy, chemical analysis and x-ray diffraction. This tissue is a cartilage which has significant correspondences with both vertebrate cartilage and plant tissues. Morphologically, the Limulus cartilage resembles certain cellular vertebrate cartilages with relatively scant matrix, and also certain plant parenchyme, collenchyme and sclerenchyme tissues. Of particular interest, was the observation that during cytoplasmic division, a phragmasome-like structure appears between the daughter cells of the dividing gill cartilage cells. This phragmasome-like structure appears to be a precursor of new matrix (cell-wall) formation between the young chondrocytes, in much the same fashion as its counterpart in plant tissues. Perichondrial cells and underlying chondrocytes contain lipid droplets, abundant glycogen and ribosomes, as do corresponding vertebrate cartilage cells. In some of the Limulus cells, glycogen and ribosomes appear to be admixed with lipid, forming aggregates in which all three materials are in intimate intraparticulate relationship. During molting, the number of ribosomes seen in chondrocytes increases. The tissue contains both hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, and gives a weak x-ray diffraction pattern.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
407 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although invertebrate cartilage tissues do not mineralize in nature, it is now reported for the first time that when excised gill cartilage tissue from Limulus (horse shoe crab) is placed in an appropriate incubation medium metastable to hydroxyapatite, mineralization will occur. The mineralization is temperature dependent, and takes place at 37 degrees but not at 20 degrees. Incubations in media metastable to calcite have not produced mineralization. Histologic examination of mineralized tissues showed mineral deposits predominantly within cells, and to a lesser extent in the matrix. X-ray diffraction of the deposited mineral revealed a typical biological hydroxyapatite pattern.
    Calcified Tissue Research 01/1976; 19(2):85-90.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tissues similar to vertebrate cartilage have been described throughout the Metazoa. Often the designation of tissues as cartilage within non-vertebrate lineages is based upon sparse supporting data. To be considered cartilage, a tissue should meet a number of histological criteria that include composition and organization of the extracellular matrix. To re-evaluate the distribution and structural properties of these tissues, we have re-investigated the histological properties of many of these tissues from fresh material, and review the existing literature on invertebrate cartilages. Chondroid connective tissue is common amongst invertebrates, and differs from invertebrate cartilage in the structure and organization of the cells that comprise it. Groups having extensive chondroid connective tissue include brachiopods, polychaetes, and urochordates. Cartilage is found within cephalopod mollusks, chelicerate arthropods and sabellid polychaetes. Skeletal tissues found within enteropneust hemichordates are unique in that the extracellular matrix shares many properties with vertebrate cartilage, yet these tissues are completely acellular. The possibility that this tissue may represent a new category of cartilage, acellular cartilage, is discussed. Immunoreactivity of some invertebrate cartilages with antibodies that recognize molecules specific to vertebrate bone suggests an intermediate phenotype between vertebrate cartilage and bone. Although cartilage is found within a number of invertebrate lineages, we find that not all tissues previously reported to be cartilage have the appropriate properties to merit their distinction as cartilage.
    Zoology 02/2004; 107(4):261-73. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methods were used to examine the distribution of elastin and the fine structure of the trabecular, nasal, branchial, and pericardial cartilages in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The cells and matrix, as well as the overall organization of these components, in larval and adult trabecular cartilage resemble those of adult annular and piston cartilages (Wright and Youson: Am. J. Anat., 167:59-70, 1983) Chondrocytes are similar to those in hyaline cartilage. Lamprin fibrils and matrix granules, but no collagen fibrils, are found in a matrix arranged into pericellular, territorial, and interterritorial zones. Branchial, pericardial, and nasal cartilages differ from trabecular, annular, and piston cartilages in the organization of their matrix and in the structural components of their matrix and perichondria. Furthermore, immunoreactive elastin-like material is present within the perichondria and peripheral matrices of nasal, branchial, and pericardial cartilages in both larval and adult lampreys. Oxytalan, elaunin, and elastic-like fibers are dispersed between collagen fibers in the perichondrium. The matrix contains lamprin fibrils, matrix granules, and a band of amorphous material, which is reminiscent of elastin, in the periphery bordering the perichondrium. The presence of elastic-like fibers and elastin-like material within some lamprey cartilages implies that this protein may have evolved earlier in vertebrate history than has been previously suggested.
    American Journal of Anatomy 06/1988; 182(1):1-15.