The biology of cartilage. I. Invertebrate cartilages: Limulus gill cartilage
ABSTRACT The endoskeletal structure supporting the gill-books of Limulus polyphemus has been investigated by means of light and electron microscopy, chemical analysis and x-ray diffraction. This tissue is a cartilage which has significant correspondences with both vertebrate cartilage and plant tissues. Morphologically, the Limulus cartilage resembles certain cellular vertebrate cartilages with relatively scant matrix, and also certain plant parenchyme, collenchyme and sclerenchyme tissues. Of particular interest, was the observation that during cytoplasmic division, a phragmasome-like structure appears between the daughter cells of the dividing gill cartilage cells. This phragmasome-like structure appears to be a precursor of new matrix (cell-wall) formation between the young chondrocytes, in much the same fashion as its counterpart in plant tissues. Perichondrial cells and underlying chondrocytes contain lipid droplets, abundant glycogen and ribosomes, as do corresponding vertebrate cartilage cells. In some of the Limulus cells, glycogen and ribosomes appear to be admixed with lipid, forming aggregates in which all three materials are in intimate intraparticulate relationship. During molting, the number of ribosomes seen in chondrocytes increases. The tissue contains both hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, and gives a weak x-ray diffraction pattern.
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ABSTRACT: A collagenous extracellular matrix was previously considered to be a requirement for classification of true cartilage. Data from the lamprey and hagfish now clearly indicate that both of these jawless craniates have extensive non-collagenous, yet cartilaginous endoskeletons. Non-collagenous cartilages are present in the cephalochordates (amphioxus) and in the invertebrates, although collagen-containing cartilages also are found in the invertebrates. This review summarizes current knowledge of the morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics of the unusual non-collagenous cartilages in jawless craniates and the cartilaginous tissues in amphioxus and invertebrates. A least two types of non-collagenous cartilage matrix proteins are found in both the hagfishes and the lampreys, all of which are resistant to digestion by cyanogen bromide (CNBr). Although all four of these matrices show some similarities with each other, suggesting a family of non-collagenous, elastin-like proteins, it is clear that the major matrix proteins of each are different. New morphological and biochemical information on the cartilaginous tissues in squid, horseshoe crab and amphioxus reveals the presence of CNBr-insoluble, non-collagenous matrix proteins, potentially extending the jawless craniate family of cartilaginous proteins into the invertebrates. Details of the evolutionary relationships between these non-collagenous matrix proteins and the significance of the occurrence of these proteins as the major components of the cartilaginous tissues of jawless craniates, amphioxus, horseshoe crab and squid, all of which are capable of producing a variety of collagens in other tissues, remain to be investigated.Cell and Tissue Research 06/2001; 304(2):165-74. DOI:10.1007/s004410100374 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In both light and electron microscopes, head cartilage from the squid Loligo pealii strongly resembles vertebrate hyaline cartilage. The tissue is characterized by the presence of irregularly-shaped cells suspended in an abundant matrix. Cell and matrix contents stain metachromatically with cationic dyes such as toluidin blue. Each cell gives off extensions which ramify via a network of channels throughout the matrix. Thereby, a system of inter-connecting canaliculi is established, with many similarities to the intercanalicular systems seen in vertebrate bone and cartilage tissues. In the electron microscope, the squid cartilage cells are seen to have very abundant endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex material. Mitochondrial transformations involving loss of cristae, the appearance of filaments in the mitochondrial matrix, and figures suggesting budding, also occur. Nuclear pores are numerous and easily detected. The matrix is characterized by the presence of a system of decussating fibrils which form polygonal figures, with granules usually evident at the points of intersection of fibrils. By chemical analysis the tissue contains 3- and 4-hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine. Preliminary wide single x-ray diffractions show a pattern characteristic for unoriented collagens, with 12 Å (intermolecular) and 2.86 Å (helix) reflections.Journal of Morphology 08/1970; 131(4):417-30. DOI:10.1002/jmor.1051310405 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cartilages (or "chondroid" tissue) in tentacles of the polychaete annelid, Sabella melanostigma, have been examined by electron microscopy and a series of histochemical techniques for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides and protein end-groups. The ultrastructural studies indicated that the cartilages possess an investing layer of dense connective tissue which differs significanly from the matrix material secreted between the chondrocytes. The cartilage matrix was positive for acidic mucins with levels of sulfation above those of mammalian chondroitins A and C. This matrix as well as the investing connective tissue were intensely PAS-positive. Sabella cartilage was also stained intensely by methods for demonstrating tryptophan, tyrosine, side-chain carboxyl groups, disulfide groups, and amino groups. It was not stained by the procedure for sulfhydryl groups. Some evolutionary aspects of cartilage and chondroid tissues were discussed.Histochemistry 02/1975; 43(1):1-10. DOI:10.1007/BF00490150