Quantitative Assessment of Left Ventricular and Left Atrial Functions by Strain Rate Imaging in Diabetic Patients with and without Hypertension

Echocardiography (Impact Factor: 1.25). 11/2008; 26(3):262 - 271. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8175.2008.00805.x

ABSTRACT Background: Impaired left ventricular (LV) function is shown by strain rate (SR) imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Left atrium (LA) function in patients with DM, however, has not been assessed by this method and the effect of hypertension (HT) on LV and LA functions in diabetic patients has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess LA function in diabetic patients with and without HT in combination with LV function. Methods: Conventional echocardiographic and SR imaging studies were performed in 55 subjects with normal systolic LV function (LV ejection fraction of 55% or more) and no evidence of coronary artery disease: 17 with DM (DM group), 22 who have both DM and HT (DM+HT group), and 16 age-matched controls. SR imaging was performed from three apical views, and peak SR was measured at 12 LV segments and 5 LA segments. Mean peak systolic SR (LVs and LAs, respectively), early diastolic SR (LVe and LAe, respectively) and late diastolic SR (LVa and LAa, respectively) were calculated by averaging data in each LV and LA segment. Results: Despite no significant differences in age, LV ejection fraction and E/A ratio among the three groups, systolic blood pressure, LA dimension and LV mass index in the DM+HT group were significantly larger than those in the controls. The DM group had reduced systolic and diastolic LV functions and impaired LA reservoir and conduit functions compared with those in the controls, as shown by lower LVs (P < 0.05), LVe (P < 0.01), LAs (P < 0.01), and LAe (P < 0.05). The DM+HT group had reduced LVs (P < 0.01), LVe (P < 0.01), LAs (P < 0.01) and LAe (P < 0.01) compared with those in the controls. The DM+HT group had significantly lower LVe (P < 0.05) and LAe (P < 0.05) than did the DM group. Conclusions: SR imaging can detect impairment of LA reservoir and conduit functions as well as LV systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in patients with DM, even in the absence of LV hypertrophy and LA dilatation. Coexisting HT augments the impairment of LV diastolic and LA conduit functions in diabetic patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Left atrial (LA) size has been shown to be a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the direct effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on left atrial volume and phasic functions by using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in a population of patients free of symptomatic cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Methods Comprehensive transthoracic echocardiographic examination was performed to 40 consecutive patients with DM (20 male, age: 50.5 ± 7.3 years) and 40 healthy controls (20 male, age: 48.4 ± 6.7 years). In addition to conventional 2D echocardiographic measurements RT3DE was performed to assess LA volumes and phasic functions. Results There were no significant difference between groups regarding parameters reflecting LV systolic function as LV diameters and ejection fraction. However, regarding parameters reflecting LV diastolic function; transmitral deceleration time and E/E’ ratio values were significantly higher and majority of early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity values were significantly lower in diabetic patients compared with controls. RT3DE demonstrated significantly higher LA maximum and minimum volumes for diabetic patients compared with controls (40.9 ± 11.9 vs 34.6 ± 9.3 mL, p: 0.009 and 15.6 ± 5.9 vs 11.9 ± 4.6 mL, p: 0,002, consecutively). LA total emptying fraction (TEF), expansion index (EI) and active emptying fraction (AEF) were found to be significantly lower in diabetics reflecting depressed LA reservoir and pump functions. There was no significant difference between groups regarding passive emptying fraction (PEF) which is assumed to be a marker of left atrial conduit function. Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were found to have increased LA volume and impaired atrial compliance and contractility. Evaluation of asymptomatic diabetic patients by using RT3DE atrial volume analysis may facilitate recognition of subtle myocardial alterations related with type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 11/2014; 28(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.07.010 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on cardiac remodeling has been evaluated for decades; however, the majority of investigations were focused only on the left ventricle. The impact of diabetes on the left atrial (LA) function is less researched. LA enlargement has been shown as an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general and diabetic population; however, LA dysfunction has been proven to be an independent predictor only in the general population. There are not much follow-up data about the influence of diabetes on LA function. New echocardiographic techniques, such as 2-dimensional speckle tracking imaging, provide more accurate, sensitive, and reliable information about LA function than traditional, volumetric methods. The aim of this review was to summarize the most recent reports about the influence of diabetes on LA function, as well as to discuss the possible mechanisms and potential clinical implications of the relationship between diabetes and LA remodeling.
    Clinical Cardiology 11/2014; 38(1). DOI:10.1002/clc.22334 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left atrial (LA) strain and strain rate, determined by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), are reproducible indices to assess LA function. Different normal ranges for LA phasic functions have been reported. We investigated the role of the reference point (P- and R-wave), gain, and region of interest (ROI), as the major sources of variation when assessing LA function. 52 subjects were evaluated for LA conventional and STE analysis. 45 of them (46 ± 14 years, 26 men) were feasible for concomitant LA deformation, and LA phasic volumes and ejection fractions (LAEF) evaluation. First, we compared the P- and R-wave methods, for the evaluation of the LA functions. We used diastolic mitral profile to clearly delineate the time intervals for each LA function. For the P-wave method, active function was assessed from negative global strain as a difference between the strain at pre-atrial contraction and strain just before mitral valve closure (GSA-), and late diastolic strain rate (GSRL); passive function from positive strain at MVO (GSA+), and from early negative diastolic strain rate (GSRE); reservoir function from the sum of GSA- and GSA+ (TGSA), and positive strain rate at the beginning of LV systole (GSR+). For the R-wave method we used the same SR parameters. The active function was evaluated by late positive global strain (GSAC), the reservoir by positive peak before the opening of the mitral valve (TGSA), and conduit function by the difference between TGSA and GSAC (GSA+). Then, by using P-wave method, we measured all previously described parameters for different gains-minimum (G0), medium (G12), and maximum (G24), and for different ROIs-minimum (ROI0), step 1 (ROI1), and 2 (ROI2). Feasibility of the LA strain measurements was 87 %. Active LA function was similar in the absolute value (GSAC and GSA-), whereas passive and reservoir functions were significantly higher (GSA+, TGSA) with the R-wave method. Active LAEF correlated with GSA- measured by the P-wave (r = -0.44, p = 0.002), but not with the GSAC measured by the R-wave method. Similar correlations were found for passive and reservoir LAEF with correspondent strain parameters, only with P-wave method. There were no differences between methods regarding SR indices and their correlations with correspondent LAEFs. Increase of gain from minimum to maximum overestimated all measured LA functions (all p < 0.05). Intermediary changes did not have a significant impact on the measurement of active and conduit function, but they do have on the measurement of the reservoir function. Increase of ROI from minimum to ROI2 was associated with an overestimation of all measurements of atrial functions (all p < 0.05). For all parameters, except GSR+, a decrease of atrial S and SR values from minimum ROI to step 1 was recorded. For GSA+, TGSA, GSRE a decrease of S and SR values with each ROI step was recorded. The two methods used to assess LA functions by STE do not provide similar results. The R-wave method essentially ignores negative peak, creating a positive strain for atrial contraction, and also provides higher values for the reservoir and conduit functions, by comparison with the P-wave method. Increase of gain overestimates, whereas increase of ROI underestimates all parameters of LA functions. Therefore, we suggest that P-wave as a reference point, a medium gain, and a minimum ROI should be used as the best choice for a correct assessment.
    Heart and Vessels 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00380-014-0602-8 · 2.11 Impact Factor