Pathogenic weight‐control methods and self‐reported eating disorders in female elite athletes and controls
ABSTRACT To determine the use of pathogenic weight-control methods and prevalence of self-reported eating disorders (ED) among female elite athletes and non-athletic controls, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and a self-developed questionnaire were administered to the total population of Norwegian female elite athletes (n=603) and age- and home community-matched controls (n=522). The response rate in both athletes and controls was 86%; 97% of the athletes and 90% of the controls had body mass index (BMI) values within or below the optimal level (20–25). Athletes had a significantly lower mean BMI 20.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 20.7–20.9) than controls 21.5 (95% CI 21.3–21.7). A similar fraction of the athletes (31%) and controls (27%) were dieting. Most athletes dieted to enhance performance (73%); most controls dieted to improve appearance (83%). Significantly more athletes (11%) than controls (7%) used pathogenic weight-control methods. Athletes competing in aesthetic and endurance sports were the leanest groups, and athletes competing in aesthetics, endurance- and weight-dependent sports most frequently reported the use of the more severe pathogenic weight-control methods. A similar fraction of athletes (22%) and controls (26%) were classified as being at risk of developing ED based on the subscale scores of the EDI. However, a higher fraction of athletes in aesthetics-, endurance-, and weight-dependent sports than athletes in technical sports, ballgames, power sports and non-athletic controls were classified as being at risk of developing ED. In contrast to previous reports, our results demonstrated that a number of athletes also competing in sports where the participants are considered less weight-conscious were using pathogenic weight-control methods (technical 10% and ballgames 8%). A similar percentage of athletes (12%) and controls (11%) actually reported having an ED.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the percentage of elite athletes and controls at risk of the female athlete triad. A detailed questionnaire, which included questions regarding training and/or physical activity patterns, menstrual history, oral contraceptive use, weight history, eating patterns, dietary history, and the Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and Drive for Thinness (DT) subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), was prepared. The questionnaire was administered to the total population of female elite athletes in Norway representing the national teams at the junior or senior level, 13-39 yr of age (N = 938) and non-athlete controls in the same age group (N = 900). After exclusion, a total of 669 athletes (88%) and 607 controls (70%) completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. A higher percentage of controls (69.2%) than athletes (60.4%) was classified as being at risk of the Triad (P < 0.01). A higher percentage of controls than athletes reported use of pathogenic weight-control methods and had high BD subscale scores (P < 0.001). However, more athletes reported menstrual dysfunction and stress fractures compared with controls (P < 0.05). A higher percentage of both athletes competing in leanness sports (70.1%) and the non-athlete control group (69.2%) was classified as being at risk of the Triad compared with athletes competing in non-leanness sports (55.3%) (P < 0.001). Furthermore, a higher percentage of athletes competing in aesthetic sports (66.4%) than ball game sports (52.6%) was classified as being at risk of the Triad (P < 0.001). More athletes competing in leanness sports and more non-athlete controls were classified as being at risk of the Triad compared with athletes competing in non-leanness sports.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 02/2005; 37(2):184-93. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the eating disorder correlates of body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, drive for thinness, and social physique anxiety of female gymnasts and nonathletes over a six-month period. Participants completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Perfectionism subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 in September (preseason) and in March (competitive season). One hundred and eleven nonathletes and 102 gymnasts completed the Time 1 questionnaire. The Time 1 response rate for the nonathletes was 72% and the response rate for the gymnasts was 98%. For Time 2, 17 nonathletes completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 15%, and 79 gymnasts completed the Time 2 questionnaire for a response rate of 77%. I found that the gymnasts and nonathletes did not differ significantly on the eating disorder correlates at Time 1. ABSTRACT (con't) : Because of the poor response rate of the nonathletes for the Time 2 data collection, time differences were examined only for the gymnasts. I found no significant time differences for the gymnasts for the eating disorder correlate measures. The attitudinal, behavioral, and psychological factors that may have explained the study findings were considered, and areas for future research were highlighted. Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format. System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader. Mode of access: World Wide Web. Title from title page of source document. Thesis (M.S.E.S.S.)--University of Florida, 2003. Includes vita. Includes bibliographical references.
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ABSTRACT: Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections.Journal of Eating Disorders. 01/2013; 1(1).