Sulphate and ammonium in mist impair the frost hardening of red spruce seedlings
ABSTRACT summaryTwo-year-old seedlings of red spruce [Picea rubens Sarg. syn. P. rubra (Du Roi) Link] were grown in open-top chambers supplied with charcoal-filtered air near Edinburgh, Scotland. Between May and November 1988, plants were exposed to mists containing NH4+, SO42− and NO3− ions at concentrations of 1.6 mol m−3 and H+ at 3.2 mol m−3, in pairwise combination and all together. The mists were applied twice weekly at a rate of 2 mm precipitation equivalent per application. Treatment with H2SO4 severely damaged the plants after 3 wk; the concentration for this treatment was therefore reduced from 1.6 mol m−3 to 0.5 mol m3, and new plants were substituted, in June 1988. Frost hardiness was assessed by freeze-testing detached shoots, then measuring rates of electrolyte leakage. No effects of the mist treatments were detected during the early stages of frost hardening, but on 31 October, shoots that had received sulphate and ammonium ions were less hardy than ‘control’ shoots treated with deionized water. The temperature which killed 20% of shoots was 14 °C higher, and the temperature which killed 56% of shoots was 7 °C higher than for ‘control’ shoots. Acidity per se had no effect on frost hardiness; nitrate ions had no effect and may have mitigated the effects of sulphate when applied together.The results confirm earlier data, and indicate that uptake of NH4+ and SO42− ions can disturb the frost-hardening process. There are important implications for pollution control strategies in the northeastern United States, if damaging interactions between frost hardiness of red spruce and pollutant deposition are linked to ammonium and sulphate rather than nitrate ions.
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ABSTRACT: Ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris seedlings from Kuhmo (64°N) and Ranua (66°N) were transplanted to 0 (control), 1, 2, and 3°N higher latitude in Northern Finland in 1997. Sampling was carried out twice per year (spring/autumn) during 1998–2000. Shoot elongation, total nitrogen concentration, frost hardiness and oxidative stress state (lipid peroxidation, glutathione reductase activity, and protein oxidation) in the needles were analyzed. Comparison between the seasonal sampling times indicated that total nitrogen, lipid peroxidation, glutathione reductase activity, and protein oxidation were lower in autumn, during which the frost hardiness was higher. The above suggests that the stress conditions were higher in spring. Comparison between the origins of the seedlings demonstrated that shoot elongation of the northern origin were minor, while their total nitrogen concentrations and frost hardiness were more pronounced. Effect of latitude on elongation of Scots pine is most probably a result of a combination of temperature and light quality. No delay in frost hardening due to higher latitude was observed during the autumnal equinox. No marked stress caused by transplantation to the north was either observed. It is concluded that southern ecotypes of Scots pine have the potential to adapt to migration driven by a warming climate.International Journal of Forestry Research 01/2010;
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ABSTRACT: The growth and morphology of Scots pine needles were studied in a long-term acid rain experiment in the far north of Finnish Lapland. Pine trees 5 m tall of age 50–70 years were exposed, by spraying the foliage and soil from a height of 2 m, to either clean water (IC) or acidified water over the period 1985–1992, the acidification site being divided into sub-areas in which the precipitation contained two levels of either sulphuric (Sm, Sh) or nitric (Nm, Nh) acid, or both (SNm, SNh). The treatments with medium and high sulphate-S over eight consecutive years yielded a total sulphur deposition of 3·4 and 17·1 gm−2, respectively, and those with medium and high nitrate-N a total nitrogen deposition of 1·1 and 5·9 g m−2. Needles were collected for light and electron microscopy, growth measurements and morphometry. Growth in branch height had decreased by about 40% after 6 years of SNm or SNh treatment, and needle growth by 15% in the SNh trees as compared with the irrigated control trees (IC), although decreases were statistically significant only with respect to the non-irrigated control trees (DC). Growth of branches and needles was slightly better in the Nh treatment than in the IC group. The areas of the whole needle, the mesophyll and the phloem decreased in response to SNh treatment as compared with IC or DC, and a statistically significant decrease of about 30–40% was seen in the area of the xylem in comparison with DC. Cellular damage was observed following the acid treatments, especially with a high acid load. The damage was manifested in collapse of the cellular compartments, increases in lipid accumulations and swelling or disorganization of the protoplast. Increased vacuolization of the cytoplasm, plasmalemma irregularities and chilling-type damage to the mitochondria were also observed.Plant Cell and Environment 04/2006; 17(9):1009 - 1021. · 5.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the chronic influence of acid fog on the gas exchange rates of momi fir (Abies firma Sieb. et Zucc.) trees, we exposed them to simulated acid fog (pH 3) for 3 years. The composition of the acid fog was similar to that observed in a region where momi fir trees have been declining, and it contained organic acids. We then treated the firs with various additional stresses, such as drought, low temperature, fine root cutting, ozone exposure, soil acidification, nitrogen load, and rhizosphere aluminum stress. Under chronic exposure to acid fog, the momi fir seedlings exhibited a pattern of stomatal behavior whereby they excessively opened in summer and closed in winter. Furthermore, the stomata of these seedlings tended to open during drought stress, and their needles were visibly injured after ozone exposure. The net photosynthesis rates of the seedlings exposed to acid fog were regulated by their stomatal aperture, rather than directly by acid fog. These results suggest that acid fog exposure disturbs the control of stomatal function in the momi fir seedlings. In addition, we found that chronic acid fog exposure suppressed the decrease in net photosynthesis rate, due to its nitrogen load.Journal of Forest Research 07/2004; 9(3):195-203. · 0.84 Impact Factor