Massive occurrence of heterotrophic filaments in acidified lakes: seasonal dynamics and composition
ABSTRACT We documented permanent presence of heterotrophic filaments in three acidified lakes (pH<5) in the Bohemian Forest. Due to acidification, crustacean zooplankton were absent in all but one lake. In terms of carbon flow, microorganisms were thus almost exclusive players in the pelagic food webs. Variety of extremely long (>100 μm) heterotrophic filaments occurred in the lakes. The filaments usually accounted for >50% of total heterotrophic microbial biomass in the pelagic zone (medians of the total biomass: 82–108 μg C l−1), except for anoxic bottom layers and for episodic appearance of Daphnia longispina in one lake. Seasonal filament formation was mainly induced and maintained by grazing of mixotrophic flagellates (Dinobryon spp.) on small unicellular bacteria in the absence of cladoceran filtration. The filaments were less active than unicellular suspended bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation revealed that usually <50% of total bacteria were targeted with oligonucleotide probes for Eubacteria.
Article: Bloom of filamentous bacteria in a mesotrophic lake: identity and potential controlling mechanism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ephemeral blooms of filamentous bacteria are a common phenomenon in the water column of oligo- to mesotrophic lakes. It is assumed that the appearance of such morphotypes is favored by selective predation of bacterivorous protists and that filter-feeding zooplankton plays a major role in suppressing these bacteria. The phylogenetic affiliation of the important bloom-forming filamentous bacteria in freshwaters is presently unknown. Here we report the identification of dominant members of a filamentous bacterial assemblage during a bloom of such morphotypes in a mesotrophic lake. By molecular cloning and fluorescence in situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes, up to 98% of filamentous cells in lake water could be assigned to a clade of almost identical (99% similarity) 16S rRNA gene sequence types, the cosmopolitan freshwater LD2 cluster. For a period of less than 1 week, members of the LD2 clade constituted >40% of the total bacterial biomass, potentially favored by high grazing of planktivorous protists. This is probably the most pronounced case of dominance by a single bacterioplankton species ever observed in natural freshwaters. In enclosures artificially stocked with the metazoan filter feeder Daphnia, bacteria related to the LD2 clade formed a significantly larger fraction of filaments than in enclosures where Daphnia had been removed. However, in the presence of higher numbers of Daphnia individuals, the LD2 bacteria, like other filaments, were eventually eliminated both in enclosures and in the lake. This points at the potential importance of filter-feeding zooplankton in controlling the occurrence and species composition of filamentous bacterial morphotypes in freshwater plankton.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2004; 70(10):6272-81. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel type of macroscopic microbial community consisting of large dendritic filaments (up to 1.5 m) in a pH 2.0 dam of the River Tinto (South-western Spain) is described. The combined use of 16S rRNA-gene surveys and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) suggested that gamma-proteobacteria and a relative large diversity of alpha-proteobacteria dominated these structures. beta-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also detected. Whereas acidophilic bacteria of the genera Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium, and archaea belonging to the Thermoplasmatales dominate mine acid drainage waters and streamers (riverbed filamentous biofilms), none of the lineages identified in this study affiliate to typical acid mine drainage acidophilic bacteria. Bacteria of the Tinto macrofilaments might be heterotrophic, and could be feeding on the organic matter entrapped in the filamentous structure.FEMS Microbiology Letters 07/2004; 235(2):221-8. · 2.04 Impact Factor