Research articles on women's entrepreneurship reveal, in spite of intentions to the contrary and in spite of inconclusive research results, a tendency to recreate the idea of women as being secondary to men and of women's businesses being of less significance or, at best, as being a complement. Based on a discourse analysis, this article discusses what research practices cause these results. It suggests new research directions that do not reproduce women's subordination but capture more and richer aspects of women's entrepreneurship.
"Similarly, the academic field of entrepreneurship is also anchored in the masculine model. The stereotype of the entrepreneur is a man, and it is an image that sometimes approaches mythical proportions of strength, fearlessness, and invincibility (Ahl 2006; Bruni et al. 2004; Ogbor 2000). To focus on women entrepreneurs in positions of leadership is to dig around in a field that is imbued with a double dose of masculinity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entrepreneurial track is a source of innovation for women’s leadership (Bel, 2009). What about the women who have spent many years as the head of growth companies that they created or acquired? In order to measure up to what point these women defy the canon, we wanted to examine the managerial and strategic postures that they assume. We conducted interviews in 2012 with six women leaders of growth companies. We observed that these women’s leadership reveals not only strategically transgressive attitudes, but also a radical rupture with a system of thought that tends to define leadership as an institutionalizing dynamic. This challenging posture does not intend to create a new type of leadership, but it highlights a trend towards a more authentic, shared and distributed leadership. Moreover, this type of leadership contributes to the well-being of these women entrepreneurs and their teams at work.
Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women, Edited by Connerley, M. L., Wu, J, 01/2016: chapter 15: pages 243-262; The Netherlands: Springer and the International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS).., ISBN: ISBN 978-94-017-9896-9
"The caring aspect of people's lives is another issue that must be incorporated into the sustainability approach (Ahl, 2006). Otherwise, structural inequalities are reproduced, leading to women's self-exploitation, as is often seen to be the case in rural tourism (Carbó et al., 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing an integrated place-based approach is necessary in order to generate sustainable policies in mountain and peripheral areas with high natural values. The High Catalan Pyrenees in Catalonia is one of these remote areas with high natural values, currently facing severe sustainability challenges. The high natural values, also called environmental capital, represent the main source of assets in a development rationale. In the urban-rural dynamics arena, " naturbanization " is one of the processes that express the profound transformation of rural society in these areas. Understood as the increasing attraction of new residents to Protected Natural Areas (PNA), naturbanization generates new development opportunities together with social renewal. Naturbanization also increases pressure on land use and raises divisions among the wide range of land users. Previous studies have identified two main paths in the area. On the one hand, ski resorts associated with new second homes are at the core of what can be called the " tourism and building " model. On the other hand, handicraft products represent the key in innovative development and social initiatives. Both models are focused on visitors but yield different impacts over the land and on the community. Both land and community use environmental assets and they are located in or close to PNA. The tourism and building model has brought about an important demographic recovery and an increase in per capita income in the area. However, this model has found its limits when promoted solely as a model of growth in the ecodevelopment framework. In contrast, entrepreneurial activities with added value show greater consistency with sustainable principles. Moreover, women's participation in entrepreneurial projects shows an increasing leadership role that can be associated with greater gender equality. New research explores the extent of the innovative initiatives related to natural assets and highlights the importance of developing an integrated approach in order to generate sustainable policies.
"The premise of Social Constructionist Feminist Theory is used as a starting point for our cognitive factor analysis. This theory suggests that men and women's perceptions and consequently their behaviour are the results of constructions developed in a specific social order (Ahl, 2006) and that women and men " each have an effective and valid, but distinct, way of thinking and rationalizing " ( Johnsen and McMahon, 2005, p. 117). Our main contribution in this paper is to explain certain differences across genders with respect to entrepreneurial perceptions in academia. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to draw from an adapted model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and from existing models of entrepreneurial intention (EI) to analyse the role of gender on academics’ perceptions concerning the commercialisation of their research results. In particular, the authors explore differences in perceptions arising from diverse cognitions, such as attitudes towards entrepreneurial activities, the influence of close social groups and opportunity recognition self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was addressed to 500 Spanish academics who have headed research projects with public funding in technology-related areas, and the results were subjected to multigroup structural equation analysis (LISREL) to determine the extent and nature of the differences within this group. Findings – The results obtained show that the influence of close social groups is perceived differently by men and women, particularly as regards the support received for academics’ attitudes and perceptions of control over the development of EI. Practical implications – The aim is to better understand the world facing academics and the influences on their intention to commercialise research outcomes. An understanding of these issues offers the opportunity to design appropriate government interventions to assist academic entrepreneurs undertaking a business venture. Originality/value – This paper considers an under-researched area that of female entrepreneurship in academia, traditionally considered a male-dominated activity. Helpful information is provided on gender differences in the academic context.
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