Women Lobbyists: The Gender Gap and Interest Representation
ABSTRACT Though women lobbyists have traditionally been underrepresented in Washington politics, a number of recent studies suggest their numbers are on the rise. Has the entry of women into the lobbying profession changed the profession in any way? Are there differences between the behavior of female and male lobbyists? In this study, we address these questions by exploring gender differences in lobbying. We do so using data from a survey of over 200 Washington lobbyists. Our findings indicate that women lobbyists use the same techniques as their male counterparts. Moreover, they exhibit similar levels of access to policymakers Mmen, and once they have this access, they appear to be taken seriously by policymakers. However, despite these gains on the part of female lobbyists, our data suggest that a substantial lobbying “gendergap” persists.
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ABSTRACT: A potential policy problem based on an actual study of prisons and recidivism rates was presented to 47 Colorado legislators during a taped interview that was later transcribed. Men and women in this study conceptualized the origins of and solutions to crime differently. These differences can be understood in terms of gendered socialization, experiences and opportunities in western societies. Women tended to see criminals as people interacting within the context of societal opportunities, while men tended to see criminals as autonomous individuals responsible for choosing a life of crime. These fundamentally different views of the origins of crime lead to distinctive policy solutions. Finally, the selfarticulated orientations were compared with all the actual crime and prison bills proposed in the 1989 session. The gender differences uncovered in the interviews were also found in actual policy proposals. However, women were less successful than men in passing their legislation.The Journal of Politics 07/1995; 57(03):696 - 723. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examines the possibility that the news media, by covering male and female candidates differently, may influence the success of female candidates. A content analysis of newspaper coverage of U.S. Senate campaigns shows that male and female Senate candidates are covered differently in the news. An experiment was conducted to explore the consequences of these differences in coverage, as well as the significance of the candidates' gender, for evaluations of Senate candidates. The experimental results suggest that gender differences in coverage tend to advantage male candidates. For instance, candidates who are covered like male candidates in the news are considered more viable than candidates who are covered like female candidates. Sex stereotypes, on the other hand, can advantage female candidates. Female candidates are viewed as more compassionate and more honest than identical male candidates. The findings from this study support the hypothesis that the mass media may influence a woman's chances of success at the polls. Male and female candidates are covered differently in the news and these differences often produce negative assessments of women candidates.The Journal of Politics 04/1992; 54(02):497 - 517. · 1.48 Impact Factor