Microbial biofilms and catabolic plasmid harbouring degradative fluorescent pseudomonads in Scots pine mycorrhizospheres developed on petroleum contaminated soil
ABSTRACT Cellular interactions and catabolic activities of mycorrhizal root associated non-sporulating bacteria were investigated in a simplified phytoremediation simulation involving a woody plant species. Mycorrhizal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings pre-colonised by Suillus bovinus or Paxillus involutus were grown in forest humus containing microcosms amended with petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminated soil. Fungal hyphae of both species, emanating from mycorrhizal roots, colonised the PHC contaminated soil over a 16-week period and dense long-lived patches of S. bovinus hyphae formed on the PHC contaminated soil. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a microbial biofilm at the PHC soil-fungal interface composed of differentiated pseudoparenchymous patch hyphae supporting a morphologically diverse bacterial population. Certain non-sporulating bacterial isolates closely associated with the S. bovinus patch hyphae or P. involutus‘web’ hyphae from the PHC soil harboured similar sized mega-plasmids (approx. 150 kb). Isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens from the ‘patch’ mycorrhizospheres represented different biovars, displayed similar REP-PCR genomic fingerprints, grew on e.g. m-toluate and m-xylene as sole carbon sources, cleaved catechol, and harboured plasmid-borne catabolic marker genes, xylE and xylMA, involved in degradation of mono-aromatics. The plasmids were transmissible in vitro, and Pseudomonas putida transconjugants retained a similar catabolic profile. The identification of microbial biofilms containing catabolic bacteria in the external mycorrhizosphere is discussed in relation to both phytoremediation mechanisms and normal efficient nutrient mobilisation from highly lignin-rich forest soils.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus constrictum Trappe) on the growth and some physio-biochemical indexes of Zea mays L. seedlings under different levels of diesel stress were investigated in a pot study. Generally, the symbiotic relationship between corn and AMF can be well established under diesel stress. This was reflected by the better physio-biochemical index of the plants inoculated with G. constrictum whose colonization rates were between 47.30% and 91.50%. Compared with the non-inoculated ones, the heights and basal diameters of the inoculated seedlings increased by 0.08–47.20% and 6.74–35.71% respectively. The relative contents of chlorophyll and soluble proteins increased by 1.88–38.79% and 3.87–77.27% respectively, while the contents of malondialdehyde and free proline decreased by 2.74–52.74% and 24.69–32.86%. Three antioxidant enzymes reacted differently under the diesel stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased at low diesel concentration, but decreased at high concentration. In contrast, peroxidase (POD) had a decreased activity at low diesel concentration, but an increased activity at high concentration. On the whole, the activity of three antioxidant enzymes in the plants inoculated with AMF were higher than those without AMF inoculation. Our results support the view that antioxidant enzymes have great influence on the biomass of plants, and AMF can improve the capability of scavenging the reactive oxygen and alleviate Z. mays seedlings from diesel stress.Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 01/2009;
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ABSTRACT: Petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination is becoming more common in boreal forest soils. However, linkages between PHC biodegradation and microbial community dynamics in the mycorrhizosphere of boreal forest soils are poorly understood. Seedlings (lodgepole pine, paper birch, lingonberry) were established in reconstructed soil systems, consisting of an organic layer (mor humus, coarse woody debris, or previously oil-contaminated mor humus) overlying mineral (Ae, Bf) horizons. Light crude oil was applied to the soil surface after 4 months; systems were destructively sampled at 1 and 16 weeks following treatment. Soil concentrations of four PHC fractions were determined using acetone–hexane extraction followed by gas chromatography – flame ionization detection analysis. Genotypic profiles of root-associated bacterial communities were generated using length heterogeneity-PCR of 16S rDNA. Most plant–soil treatments showed significant loss in the smaller fraction PHCs indicating an inherent capacity for biodegradation. Concentrations of total PHCs declined significantly only in planted (pine-woody debris and birch-humus) systems (averaging 59% and 82% loss between 1 and 16 weeks respectively), reinforcing the importance of the mycorrhizosphere for enhancing microbial catabolism. Bacterial community structure was correlated more with mycorrhizosphere type and complexity than with PHC contamination. However, results suggest that communities in PHC-contaminated and pristine soils may become distinct over time.Environmental Microbiology Reports 07/2010; 2(4):587 - 593. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A greenhouse experiment was conducted with varying concentrations of phenanthrene (11-344 mg kg(-1)) and pyrene (15-335 mg kg(-1)) spiked in the soil to evaluate the phytoremediation of PAHs contaminated soil using tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). After 65-day of tall fescue growth, plant biomass, microbial viable counts, dehydrogenase activity, water-soluble phenolic compounds, phenanthrene and pyrene residual concentrations and removal percentages were determined. The results showed that target PAHs (phenanthrene and pyrene) did not affect plant biomass at lower concentrations but a reduced biomass (only 53.5% of shoot and 29.7% of root compared to control) was observed at higher concentrations. Higher biological activities (microbial viable counts, water-soluble phenolic compounds, dehydrogenase activity) and PAHs degradation rates were detected in planted soils than unplanted controls. After harvest, 91.7-97.8% of phenanthrene and 70.8-90.0% of pyrene had been degraded in the planted soils, which were 1.88-3.19% and 8.85-20.69% larger than those in corresponding unplanted soils. This enhanced dissipation of target PAHs in planted soils might be derived from increased biological activity in the rhizosphere. The results of the present study suggest that the presence of tall fescue roots were effective in promoting the phytoremediation of PAHs contaminated soil.Journal of hazardous materials 01/2009; 166(2-3):1226-31. · 4.14 Impact Factor