Oxidation of succinate in heart, brain, and kidney mitochondria in hypobaria and hypoxia.
ABSTRACT Exposure of rats to hypobaric stress for periods of up to 36 h caused a consistent change in the succinate-NT reductase activity of the heart mitochondria whereas there was no significant change in the activities of either succinate dehydrogenase and succinate-NT reductase of the brain and the kidney. Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase of the heart, the brain and the kidney was activated 2- to 7-fold with the substrate and malonate. The activations obtained with oxalate, citrate and dinitrophenol were relatively lower in comparison to succinate and malonate. Benzohydroquinone and 2-nitrophenol had no stimulatory effect on the heart, the brain and the kidney mitochondria. THE ACTIVATIONS OBTAINED WITH THE VARIOUS EFFECTORS PARTIALLY (OR COMPLETELY IN THE CASE OF SUCCINATE) REVERSED ON WASHING THE MITOCHONDRIAL SAMPLES WITH THE SUCROSE HOMOGENIZING MEDIUM. The effect of ubiquinol, which also activated the enzyme, was only partially reversed after the second preincubation with succinate in the brain and the kidney whereas in the heart the activity was fully reversed. The increased activity of succinate dehydrogenase obtained with ATP and ADP was further enhanced by Mg2+ exclusively in the brain mitochondria, suggesting the possibility of Mg2+-AIP complex as the active species. Succinate-NT reductase of the heart, the brain and the kidney mitochondria showed a high activation with ubiquinone whereas its reduced form had no stimulatory effect.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxic mammalian neurons undergo excitotoxic cell death, whereas painted turtle neurons survive prolonged anoxia without apparent injury. Anoxic survival is possibly mediated by a decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity and maintenance of cellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](c)) within a narrow range during anoxia. In mammalian ischaemic models, activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mK(ATP)) channels partially uncouples mitochondria resulting in a moderate increase in [Ca(2+)](c) and neuroprotection. The aim of this study was to determine the role of mK(ATP) channels in anoxic turtle NMDAR regulation and if mitochondrial uncoupling and [Ca(2+)](c) changes underlie this regulation. In isolated mitochondria, the K(ATP) channel activators diazoxide and levcromakalim increased mitochondrial respiration and decreased ATP production rates, indicating mitochondria were 'mildly' uncoupled by 10-20%. These changes were blocked by the mK(ATP) antagonist 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5HD). During anoxia, [Ca(2+)](c) increased 9.3 +/- 0.3% and NMDAR currents decreased 48.9 +/- 4.1%. These changes were abolished by K(ATP) channel blockade with 5HD or glibenclamide, Ca(2+)(c) chelation with 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) or by activation of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter with spermine. Similar to anoxia, diazoxide or levcromakalim increased [Ca(2+)](c) 8.9 +/- 0.7% and 3.8 +/- 0.3%, while decreasing normoxic whole-cell NMDAR currents by 41.1 +/- 6.7% and 55.4 +/- 10.2%, respectively. These changes were also blocked by 5HD or glibenclamide, BAPTA, or spermine. Blockade of mitochondrial Ca(2+)-uptake decreased normoxic NMDAR currents 47.0 +/- 3.1% and this change was blocked by BAPTA but not by 5HD. Taken together, these data suggest mK(ATP) channel activation in the anoxic turtle cortex uncouples mitochondria and reduces mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake via the uniporter, subsequently increasing [Ca(2+)](c) and decreasing NMDAR activity.The Journal of Physiology 03/2008; 586(4):1043-58. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142380 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Succinate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the liver and heart of newborn rats after 3 and 48 hours' exposure to anoxic hypoxia (10% O2) and after 48 hours' starvation. Control determinations were made on newborn animals of corresponding ages, full term foetuses (21 days), infantile (1 and 2 weeks) and full grown animals. Hypoxia for 3 h had no influence on succinate dehydrogenase activity at all in either the heart or liver mitochondria of the newborn animals. After 48 h no difference was observed in the liver between the hypoxic animals and the starved controls of the same age, though starvation itself had resulted in a significant increase in activity, as much as 42%. When liver mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase in normal mitochondria was activated by preincubation mitochondria with the substrate, the activity increase obtained was greater than that resulting from starvation. The increase in activity in the heart of the hypoxic or starved animals was not significant (less than 10%).Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 08/1976; 97(3):357-61. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1976.tb10274.x · 2.55 Impact Factor