The effects of dentate granule cell destruction on behavioural activity and Fos protein expression induced by systemic methamphetamine in rats

British Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.07). 01/2009; 134(7):1411 - 1418. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0704370

ABSTRACT We destroyed dentate granule cells unilaterally or bilaterally by means of intrahippocampal injection of colchicine in rats. Subsequently, we observed behavioural changes following the intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg kg−1 methamphetamine or saline, in addition to quantitatively assessing Fos protein expression in several brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, piriform cortex, dorsal striatum, and nucleus accumbens.Bilaterally lesioned animals, when administered saline, showed a marked increase in locomotor activity compared with those of non-lesioned animals. With respect to the methamphetamine response, bilateral destruction resulted in a marked enhancement of locomotor activity, while the unilateral destruction led to a marked increase in rotation predominantly contralateral to the lesioned side, with no identifiable change in locomotor activity.Bilaterally lesioned animals, when administered saline and having undergone an immunohistological examination, showed a marked increase in Fos expression in both sides of the nucleus accumbens. Bilaterally lesioned animals administered methamphetamine showed a marked increase in Fos expression in the right and left sides of all regions tested. Unilaterally lesioned animals administered methamphetamine showed a significant and bilateral enhancement in Fos expression in the medial prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and a marked and unilateral (ipsilateral to the lesioned side) enhancement of Fos protein in the piriform cortex, dorsal striatum, and nucleus accumbens.The present findings suggest that dentate granule cells regulate methamphetamine-associated behavioural changes through the function of widespread areas of the brain, mostly the nucleus accumbens.British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 134, 1411–1418; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704370

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended access) on cognitive performance and relapse to drug seeking and may contribute to the impairments that perpetuate the addiction cycle.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2011; 37(5):1275-87. · 8.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is an age-dependent progressive neurodegenerative disorder. β-amyloid, a metabolic product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. The Thy1-hAPP(Lond/Swe+) (line 41) transgenic mouse overexpresses human APP751 and contains the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations. Here, we used a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, cognition, and social behavior in six-month-old male Thy1-hAPP(Lond/Swe+) mice. We found hyperactivity in a novel environment as well as significant deficits in spontaneous alternation behavior. In fear conditioning (FC), Thy1-hAPP(Lond/Swe+) mice did not display deficits in acquisition or in memory retrieval in novel context of tone-cued FC, but they showed significant memory retrieval impairment during contextual testing in an identical environment. Surprisingly, in a standard hidden platform water maze, no significant deficit was detected in mutant mice. However, a delayed-matching-to-place paradigm revealed a significant deficit in Thy1-hAPP(Lond/Swe+) mice. Lastly, in the social novelty session of a three-chamber test, Thy1-hAPP(Lond/Swe+) mice exhibited a significantly decreased interest in a novel versus a familiar stranger compared to control mice. This could possibly be explained by decreased social memory or discrimination and may parallel disturbances in social functioning in human AD patients. In conclusion, the Thy1-hAPP(Lond/Swe+) mouse model of AD displayed a behavioral phenotype that resembles, in part, the cognitive and psychiatric symptoms experienced in AD patients.
    Brain and behavior. 03/2012; 2(2):142-54.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal models. To further understand the resulting data set, we have organized a second database of the alterations (genetic, pharmacological or brain lesions) that reduce locomotor activity. Using this approach, we estimated that 1.56% of the genes in the genome yield to hyperactivity and 0.75% of genes produce hypoactivity when altered. These genes have been classified into genes for neurotransmitter systems, hormonal, metabolic systems, ion channels, structural proteins, transcription factors, second messengers and growth factors. Finally, two additional classes included animals with neurodegeneration and inner ear abnormalities. The analysis of the database revealed several unexpected findings. First, the genes that, when mutated, induce hyperactive behaviour do not pertain to a single neurotransmitter system. In fact, alterations in most neurotransmitter systems can give rise to a hyperactive phenotype. In contrast, fewer changes can decrease locomotor activity. Specifically, genetic and pharmacological alterations that enhance the dopamine, orexin, histamine, cannabinoids systems or that antagonize the cholinergic system induce an increase in locomotor activity. Similarly, imbalances in the two main neurotransmitters of the nervous system, GABA and glutamate usually result in hyperactive behaviour. It is remarkable that no genetic alterations pertaining to the GABA system have been reported to reduce locomotor behaviour. Other neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, have a more complex influence. For instance, a decrease in norepinephrine synthesis usually results in hypoactive behaviour. However, a chronic increase in norepinephrine may result in hypoactivity too. Similarly, changes in both directions of serotonin levels may reduce locomotor activity, whereas alterations in specific serotonin receptors can induce hyperactivity. The lesion of at least 12 different brain regions can increase locomotor activity too. Comparatively, few focal lesions decrease locomotor activity. Finally, a large number of toxic events can increase locomotor activity, particularly if delivered during the prepuberal time window. These data show that there is a net imbalance in the number of altered genes/brain lesions/toxics that induce hyperactivity versus hypoactive behaviour. Although some of these data may be explained in terms of the activating role of subcortical systems (such as catecholamines), the larger number of alterations that induce hyperactivity suggests a different scenario. Specifically, we hypothesize (i) the existence of a control system that continuously inhibit a basally hyperactive locomotor tone and (ii) that this control system is highly vulnerable (intrinsic fragility) to any change in the genetic asset or to any toxic/drug delivered during prepuberal stages. Brain lesion studies suggest that the putative control system is located along an axis that connects the olfactory bulb and the enthorhinal cortex (enthorhinal-hippocampal-septal-prefrontal cortex-olfactory bulb axis). We suggest that the increased locomotor activity in many psychiatric diseases may derive from the interference with the development of this brain axis during a specific postnatal time window.
    Behavioural Brain Research 12/2008; 194(1):1-14. · 3.33 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014