Tani K, Iyo M, Matsumoto H, Kawai M, Suzuki K, Iwata Y et al. The effects of dentate granule cell destruction on behavioural activity and Fos protein expression induced by systemic methamphetamine in rats. Br J Pharmacol 134: 1411-1418

British Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.84). 01/2009; 134(7):1411 - 1418. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0704370


We destroyed dentate granule cells unilaterally or bilaterally by means of intrahippocampal injection of colchicine in rats. Subsequently, we observed behavioural changes following the intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg kg−1 methamphetamine or saline, in addition to quantitatively assessing Fos protein expression in several brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, piriform cortex, dorsal striatum, and nucleus accumbens.
Bilaterally lesioned animals, when administered saline, showed a marked increase in locomotor activity compared with those of non-lesioned animals. With respect to the methamphetamine response, bilateral destruction resulted in a marked enhancement of locomotor activity, while the unilateral destruction led to a marked increase in rotation predominantly contralateral to the lesioned side, with no identifiable change in locomotor activity.
Bilaterally lesioned animals, when administered saline and having undergone an immunohistological examination, showed a marked increase in Fos expression in both sides of the nucleus accumbens. Bilaterally lesioned animals administered methamphetamine showed a marked increase in Fos expression in the right and left sides of all regions tested. Unilaterally lesioned animals administered methamphetamine showed a significant and bilateral enhancement in Fos expression in the medial prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and a marked and unilateral (ipsilateral to the lesioned side) enhancement of Fos protein in the piriform cortex, dorsal striatum, and nucleus accumbens.
The present findings suggest that dentate granule cells regulate methamphetamine-associated behavioural changes through the function of widespread areas of the brain, mostly the nucleus accumbens.
British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 134, 1411–1418; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704370


Available from: Katsuaki Suzuki, Mar 21, 2014
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    • "This withdrawal-specific effect in LgA rats is worth noting because this maladaptive change could function to return the homeostasis of granule cell neuron turnover, or incubate drug, and drug-context associations relating to drug seeking (Vorel et al, 2001; Hiranita et al, 2006; Rademacher et al, 2006; Shen et al, 2006; Zhou and Zhu, 2006; Lasseter et al, 2010; Noonan et al, 2010; Luo et al, 2011). However, further functional exploration of this putative enhanced survival is warranted, as well as identification of other neuroadaptations during protracted withdrawal that may regulate the hippocampus and hippocampus-dependent relapse behavior (Tani et al, 2001; Hiranita et al, 2006; Zhou and Zhu, 2006; Lasseter et al, 2010; Noonan et al, 2010; Garcia-Fuster et al, 2011). We next determined whether relapse behaviors following noncontingent exposure to methamphetamine produces changes in dentate gyrus neural progenitors and whether these changes are altered compared with protracted withdrawal-induced changes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended access) on cognitive performance and relapse to drug seeking and may contribute to the impairments that perpetuate the addiction cycle.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2011; 37(5):1275-87. DOI:10.1038/npp.2011.315 · 7.05 Impact Factor
    • "The Ts65Dn mice also displayed a higher overall locomotor activity, both in the home cage and a novel testing environment. It has been shown that prefrontal cortex and hippocampal lesions in rodents leads to hyperactivity (Deacon et al., 2002; Katsuta et al., 2003; Kolb, 1974; Takakusaki, 2008; Tani et al., 2001; Viggiano, 2008). Pathological and biochemical abnormalities observed in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice (Belichenko et al., 2004) or altered cholinergic neurotransmission (Granholm et al., 2000; Seo and Isacson, 2005) may be responsible for this observed hyperactivity in Ts65Dn mice. "
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    ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Significant abnormalities in noradrenergic (NE-ergic) afferents from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus, as well as deficits in NE-ergic neurotransmission are detected in these animals. In the current study we characterized in detail the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice, in addition to using pharmacological tools for identification of target receptors mediating the learning and memory deficits observed in this model of DS. We undertook a comprehensive approach to mouse phenotyping using a battery of standard and novel tests encompassing: (i) locomotion (Activity Chamber, PhenoTyper, and CatWalk), (ii) learning and memory (spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, fear conditioning, and Intellicage), and (iii) social behavior. Ts65Dn mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel and home cage environments. There were significant and reproducible deficits in learning and memory tests including spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, Intellicage place avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Although Ts65Dn mice showed no deficit in sociability in the 3-chamber test, a marked impairment in social memory was detected. Xamoterol, a β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-ADR) agonist, effectively restored the memory deficit in contextual fear conditioning, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition. These behavioral improvements were reversed by betaxolol, a selective β1-ADR antagonist. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that this mouse model of Down syndrome displays cognitive deficits which are mediated by an imbalance in the noradrenergic system. In this experimental model of Down syndrome a selective activation of β1-ADR does restore some of these behavioral deficits. Further mechanistic studies will be needed to investigate the failure of noradrenergic system and the role of β1-ADR in cognitive deficit and pathogenesis of DS in people. Restoring NE neurotransmission or a selective activation of β1)-ADR needs to be further investigated for the development of any potential therapeutic strategy for symptomatic relief of memory deficit in DS. Furthermore, due to the significant involvement of noradrenergic system in the cardiovascular function further safety and translational studies will be needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of this approach.
    Neurobiology of Disease 08/2011; 43(2):397-413. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.04.011 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    • "Since mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons innervate the SGZ of the dentate gyrus [30], the dopaminergic activities of these neurons may be involved in the regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, we previously reported that cell destruction of dentate granules by intrahippocampal injection of colchicine enhanced methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats [31], suggesting that dentate granule cells may regulate methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes. Taken together, the evidence suggests that the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis by irradiation may, in part, be implicated in the hyperdopaminergic activity of irradiated rats although the cumulative numbers of granule cells in the granule layer were not altered in irradiated rats. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that radiation exposure may be a potential risk factor for schizophrenia in adult humans. Here, we investigated whether adult irradiation in rats caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. A total dose of 15-Gy irradiation in six fractionations during 3 weeks was exposed to the forebrain including the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) with male rats in the prone position. Behavioral, immunohistochemical, and neurochemical studies were performed three months after fractionated ionizing irradiation. Three months after fractionated ionizing irradiation, the total numbers of BrdU-positive cells in both the SVZ and SGZ zones of irradiated rats were significantly lower than those of control (sham-irradiated) rats. Hyperactivity after administration of the dopaminergic agonist methamphetamine, but not the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine, was significantly enhanced in the irradiated rats although spontaneous locomotion in the irradiated rats was significantly lower than that of controls. Behavioral abnormalities including auditory sensory gating deficits, social interaction deficits, and working memory deficits were observed in the irradiated rats. The present study suggests that irradiation in adulthood caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, and that reduction of adult neurogenesis by irradiation may be associated with schizophrenia-like behaviors in rats.
    PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(5):e2283. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0002283 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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