Can an educational program optimize PDE5i therapy? A study of Canadian primary care practices

Division of Urology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
Journal of Sexual Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 07/2007; 4(5):1404 - 1413. DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00549.x

ABSTRACT Introduction. The importance of patient instructions, designed to optimize therapy with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), has recently been demonstrated. Aim. To evaluate the impact of an educational program for new sildenafil users against usual ED management in Canadian primary care practices. Methods. This multicenter, 6-month cluster randomized prospective study was conducted across Canada in general practitioners' offices where sites were randomized to receive a treatment optimization program (TOP) tool at visit I (TOP sites) or not to receive the TOP tool (non-TOP sites) while continuing with usual practice. Study participants were men seeking medical attention for ED and who were sildenafil naive. The TOP tool consisted of a tear-off sheet, a brochure, and a video. Study drug was not provided to the patients. Sildenafil samples and prescriptions were dispensed as per usual care practices. Main Outcome Measures. The Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire was used to determine treatment satisfaction at visit 2 (month 3) and visit 3 (month 6). Patient and physician satisfaction with the TOP tool was assessed using self-reported questionnaires. Results. The intent-to-treat (ITT) population consisted of 2,573 patients from 231 primary care sites. At visits 2 and 3, treatment satisfaction with sildenafil was high with almost 9 patients out of 10 satisfied with treatment. No significant statistical differences were observed in the EDITS scores between the TOP and the non-TOP groups at visits 2 and 3. More than 80% of the participants were satisfied or very satisfied with the video and the brochure. More than 8 out of 10 participating physicians (84%) would use the TOP tool in their current practice if available. Conclusions. TOP is a valuable and time-efficient ED management tool providing benefits to newly diagnosed ED patients and to their physicians.

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    ABSTRACT: Health consumers increasingly want access to accurate, evidence-based information about their medications. Currently, education about medications (that is, information that is designed to achieve health or illness related learning) is provided predominantly via spoken communication between the health provider and consumer, sometimes supplemented with written materials. There is evidence, however, that current educational methods are not meeting consumer needs. Multimedia educational programs offer many potential advantages over traditional forms of education delivery. To assess the effects of multimedia patient education interventions about prescribed and over-the-counter medications in people of all ages, including children and carers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2011), EMBASE (1974 to June 2011), CINAHL (1982 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1967 to June 2011), ERIC (1966 to June 2011), ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Database (to June 2011) and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of multimedia-based patient education about prescribed or over-the-counter medications in people of all ages, including children and carers, if the intervention had been targeted for their use. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Where possible, we contacted study authors to obtain missing information. We identified 24 studies that enrolled a total of 8112 participants. However, there was significant heterogeneity in the comparators used and the outcomes measured, which limited the ability to pool data. Many of the studies did not report sufficient information in their methods to allow judgment of their risk of bias. From the information that was reported, three of the studies had a high risk of selection bias and one was at high risk of bias due to lack of blinding of the outcome assessors. None of the included studies reported the minimum clinically important difference for the outcomes that were measured. We have therefore reported results from the studies but have been unable to interpret whether differences were of clinical importance.The main findings of the review are as follows.Knowledge: There is low quality evidence that multimedia education was more effective than usual care (non-standardised education provided as part of usual clinical care) or no education (standardised mean difference (SMD) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to1.58, six studies with 817 participants). There was considerable statistical heterogeneity (I(2) = 89%), however, all but one of the studies favoured the multimedia group. There is moderate quality evidence that multimedia education was not more effective at improving knowledge than control multimedia interventions (i.e. multimedia programs that do not provide information about the medication) (mean difference (MD) of knowledge scores 2.78%, 95% CI -1.48 to 7.0, two studies with 568 participants). There is moderate quality evidence that multimedia education was more effective when added to a co-intervention (written information or brief standardised instructions provided by a health professional) compared with the co-intervention alone (MD of knowledge scores 24.59%, 95% CI 22.34 to 26.83, two studies with 381 participants).Skill acquisition: There is moderate quality evidence that multimedia education was more effective than usual care or no education (MD of inhaler technique score 18.32%, 95% CI 11.92 to 24.73, two studies with 94 participants) and written education (risk ratio (RR) of improved inhaler technique 2.14, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.44, two studies with 164 participants). There is very low quality evidence that multimedia education was equally effective as education by a health professional (MD of inhaler technique score -1.01%, 95% CI -15.75 to 13.72, three studies with 130 participants).Compliance with medications: There is moderate quality evidence that there was no difference between multimedia education and usual care or no education (RR of complying 1.02, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.08, two studies with 4552 participants).We could not determine the effect of multimedia education on other outcomes, including patient satisfaction, self-efficacy and health outcomes, due to an inadequate number of studies from which to draw conclusions. This review provides evidence that multimedia education about medications is more effective than usual care (non-standardised education provided by health professionals as part of usual clinical care) or no education, in improving both knowledge and skill acquisition. It also suggests that multimedia education is at least equivalent to other forms of education, including written education and education provided by a health professional. However, this finding is based on often low quality evidence from a small number of trials. Multimedia education about medications could therefore be considered as an adjunct to usual care but there is inadequate evidence to recommend it as a replacement for written education or education by a health professional. Multimedia education may be considered as an alternative to education provided by a health professional, particularly in settings where provision of detailed education by a health professional is not feasible. More studies evaluating multimedia educational interventions are required in order to increase confidence in the estimate of effect of the intervention.Conclusions regarding the effect of multimedia education were limited by the lack of information provided by study authors about the educational interventions, and variability in their content and quality. Studies testing educational interventions should provide detailed information about the interventions and comparators. Research is required to establish a framework that is specific for the evaluation of the quality of multimedia educational programs. Conclusions were also limited by the heterogeneity in the outcomes reported and the instruments used to measure them. Research is required to identify a core set of outcomes which should be measured when evaluating patient educational interventions. Future research should use consistent, reliable and validated outcome measures so that comparisons can be made between studies.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2013; 4(4):CD008416. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD008416.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine, in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), the extent of improvement in erection hardness and in the rate of successful sexual intercourse (SSI) during the final intercourse attempt using sildenafil 50 mg compared with the subsequent initial attempt after a dose increase to 100 mg. This post hoc analysis used data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of flexible-dose sildenafil for the treatment of men with ED, who were given sildenafil 50 mg or matching placebo, to be taken as needed before sexual intercourse. After 2 weeks, those with no tolerability concerns were titrated up to 100 mg, forming the subgroup of this analysis. The main outcome measures were event log data, including an Erection Hardness Score (EHS) and a question on SSI ("Did your erection last long enough for you to have successful sexual intercourse?"), for each attempt at sexual intercourse, analyzed by study and treatment group (sildenafil or placebo). Statistical comparisons were conducted by using the Fisher's exact test. In both studies, the sildenafil group had a larger proportion of EHS4 (completely hard and fully rigid) erections (P < 0.001) and SSI (P < 0.005) compared with the placebo group, both before and after the dose increase. Between the final 50 mg sildenafil dose and the initial 100 mg sildenafil dose, the outcomes improved and significantly so in the larger study. The improved efficacy with sildenafil 100 mg versus 50 mg, which occurs rapidly, suggests that patients should be encouraged to use 100 mg if they are unable to achieve completely hard and fully rigid erections or SSI with the 50 mg dose.
    International Journal of General Medicine 11/2013; 6:849-854. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S45449
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction.  Sexual health of the elderly has long been either a taboo or a non-medical life style luxury issue. Increasing longevity of women and men, reconceptualization of sexual health as part of general health, and the development of drugs aiming at improvement of sexual function have contributed to a change in the attitude of the elderly and the medical community, thus increasing the demands for help.Aims.  To respond to these demands, caregivers need to be informed about the statistics concerning the sex life of the elderly, need to understand the biological, psychological, interaction and social factors that determine the sexual health of the aging population, need a comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approach, taking into account the specific characteristics of the aging male, female, and the couple.Main Outcome Measures.  Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm integrating the biopsychosocial profile of the aging male and female and the interaction characteristics of the couple.Methods.  Review of the literature, analysis of cases, and review of multidisciplinary case discussions of elderly couples with sexual problems consulting the Division of Sexual Medicine at the University Hospital of Basel.Results.  Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in the aging population, with hypoactive sexual desire disorder and pain disorders being the most frequent in women, and premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction being the most frequent in men. The specific characteristics of the sexual ill health in elderly couples are the interactions of physical and mental morbidity including therapies, multidimensional sexual dysfunctions in both partners, dyssynchrony in personal development and sexual scripts, and a longstanding fixed interactional pattern with rigid “sexual roles.” The diagnostic approach has to integrate sexological descriptive diagnoses of both partners, their biopsychosocial profile, and the couple's history and interactional pattern. From this diagnostic framework, caregivers must design specific, multidisciplinary therapeutic strategies for the elderly couple, which include biomedical, individual psychotherapeutic, and systemic interventions in various combinations.Conclusion.  The increasing demand for help of elderly couples with sexual dysfunction requires a multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis and therapy combining the knowledge and skills of urologists, gynecologists, internists, and various mental health professionals to provide individualized age-related care. Bitzer J, Platano G, Tschudin S, and Alder J. Sexual counseling in elderly couples. J Sex Med 2008;5:2027–2043.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 08/2008; 5(9):2027 - 2043. DOI:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00926.x · 3.15 Impact Factor