Pharmacokinetic and local tissue disposition of [14C]sodium diclofenac following iontophoresis and systemic administration in rabbits
ABSTRACT The systemic pharmacokinetics and local drug distribution of sodium diclofenac in skin and underlying tissues was studied. Iontophoresis facilitated local and systemic delivery of diclofenac sodium compared with passive diffusion. The maximum plasma concentration of sodium diclofenac was achieved within 1 h of iontophoresis, and the delivery was proportional to applied current density (371 ± 141 and 132 ± 62 μg/L at 0.5 and 0.2 mA/cm2, respectively). The in vivo delivery efficiency for diclofenac in rabbit was 0.15 mg/mA·h. The concentrations of sodium diclofenac in the skin, subcutanoeus tissue, and muscle beneath the drug application site (cathode) were significantly greater than plasma concentrations and concentrations of drug in similar tissues at the untreated sites. The results thus suggest that the cutaneous microvasculature is not always a perfect “sink” and that transdermal iontophoresis facilitated the direct penetration of diclofenac sodium to deeper tissues. No skin irritation was observed up to 0.5 mA/cm2 current density and 7 mg/mL sodium diclofenac concentration. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90:1269–1276, 2001
- SourceAvailable from: M. H. G. DehghanInternational Journal of Health Research. 01/2008; Vol.1:[Page 115-127].
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ABSTRACT: The potential for topical delivery of meloxicam was investigated by examining its pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and synovial fluid following oral and transdermal administration in Beagle dogs. The experiment was a two-period, crossover design using 6 Beagle dogs. Meloxicam tablets were administered orally at a dose of 0.31 mg/kg, and meloxicam gel was administered transdermally at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg. Drug concentrations in plasma and synovial fluid were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the Topfit 2.0 program. The pharmacokinetic results showed that AUC(0-t) (23.9+/-8.26 microg.h.mL(-1)) in plasma after oral administration was significantly higher than after transdermal delivery (1.00+/-0.43 microg.h.mL(-1)). In contrast, the ratio of the average concentration in synovial fluid to that in plasma following transdermal administration was higher than that for an oral delivery. The synovial fluid concentration in the treated leg was much higher than that in the untreated leg, whereas the synovial fluid concentration in the untreated leg was similar to the plasma concentration. The high concentration ratio of synovial fluid to plasma indicates direct penetration of meloxicam following topical administration to the target tissue. This finding is further supported by the differences observed in meloxicam concentrations in synovial fluid in the treated and untreated joints at the same time point. Our results suggest that transdermal delivery of meloxicam is a promising method for decreasing its adverse systemic effects.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1060-1064; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.73; published online 8 June 2009.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 07/2009; 30(7):1060-4. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the cathodal iontophoresis of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX-P) in vitro and in vivo and to determine the feasibility of delivering therapeutic amounts of the drug for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Stability studies, performed to investigate the susceptibility of the phosphate ester linkage to hydrolysis, confirmed that conversion of DEX-P to dexamethasone (DEX) upon exposure to samples of human, porcine and rat dermis for 7 h was limited (82.2+/-0.4%, 72.5+/-4.8% and 78.6+/-6.0% remained intact) and did not point to any major inter-species differences. Iontophoretic transport of DEX-P across dermatomed porcine skin (0.75 mm thickness) was studied in vitro as a function of concentration (10, 20, 40 mM) and current density (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mA cm(-2)) using flow-through diffusion cells. Increasing concentration of DEX-P from 10 to 40 mM resulted in a approximately 4-fold increase in cumulative permeation (35.65+/-23.20 and 137.90+/-53.90 microg cm(-2), respectively). Good linearity was also observed between DEX-P flux and the applied current density (i(d); 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mA cm(-2); J(DEX) (microg cm(2) h(-1))=237.98 i(d)-21.32, r(2)=0.96). Moreover, separation of the DEX-P formulation from the cathode compartment by means of a salt bridge - hence removing competition from Cl(-) ions generated at the cathode - produced a 2-fold increase in steady-state iontophoretic flux (40 mM, 0.3 mA cm(-2); 20.98+/-7.96 and 41.82+/-11.98 microg cm(-2) h(-1), respectively). Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in Wistar rats (40 mM DEX-P; 0.5 mA cm(-2) for 5h with Ag/AgCl electrodes and salt bridges). Results showed that DEX-P was almost completely converted to DEX in the bloodstream, and significant DEX levels were achieved rapidly. The flux across rat skin in vivo (1.66+/-0.20 microg cm(-2) min(-1)), calculated from the input rate, was not statistically different from the flux obtained in vitro across dermatomed porcine skin (1.79+/-0.49 microg cm(-2) min(-1)). The results suggest that DEX-P delivery rates would be sufficient for the management of chemotherapy-induced emesis.European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 03/2010; 75(2):173-8. · 3.15 Impact Factor