Pharmacokinetic and local tissue disposition of [14C]sodium diclofenac following iontophoresis and systemic administration in rabbits
ABSTRACT The systemic pharmacokinetics and local drug distribution of sodium diclofenac in skin and underlying tissues was studied. Iontophoresis facilitated local and systemic delivery of diclofenac sodium compared with passive diffusion. The maximum plasma concentration of sodium diclofenac was achieved within 1 h of iontophoresis, and the delivery was proportional to applied current density (371 ± 141 and 132 ± 62 μg/L at 0.5 and 0.2 mA/cm2, respectively). The in vivo delivery efficiency for diclofenac in rabbit was 0.15 mg/mA·h. The concentrations of sodium diclofenac in the skin, subcutanoeus tissue, and muscle beneath the drug application site (cathode) were significantly greater than plasma concentrations and concentrations of drug in similar tissues at the untreated sites. The results thus suggest that the cutaneous microvasculature is not always a perfect “sink” and that transdermal iontophoresis facilitated the direct penetration of diclofenac sodium to deeper tissues. No skin irritation was observed up to 0.5 mA/cm2 current density and 7 mg/mL sodium diclofenac concentration. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90:1269–1276, 2001
- SourceAvailable from: M. H. G. DehghanInternational Journal of Health Research. 01/2008; Vol.1:[Page 115-127].
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pain poses a major concern to modern medicine and is frequently undertreated, causing suffering and disability. Patient-controlled analgesia, although successful, does have limitations. Transdermal delivery is the pivot to which analgesic research in drug delivery has centralized, especially with the confines of needle phobias and associated pain related to traditional injections, and the existing limitations associated with oral drug delivery. Highlighted within is the possibility of further developing transdermal drug delivery for chronic pain treatment using iontophoresis-based microneedle array patches. A concerted effort was made to review critically all available therapies designed for the treatment of chronic pain. The drug delivery systems developed for this purpose and nondrug routes are elaborated on, in a systematic manner. Recent developments and future goals in transdermal delivery as a means to overcome the individual limitations of the aforementioned delivery routes are represented as well. The approval of patch-like devices that contain both the microelectronic-processing mechanism and the active medicament in a small portable device is still awaited by the pharmaceutical industry. This anticipated platform may provide transdermal electro-activated and electro-modulated drug delivery systems a feasible attempt in chronic pain treatment. Iontophoresis has been proven an effective mode used to administer ionized drugs in physiotherapeutic, diagnostic, and dermatological applications and may be an encouraging probability for the development of devices and aids in the treatment of chronic pain. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Topical application of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) decoy appears to provide a novel therapeutic potency in the treatment of inflammation and atopic dermatitis. However, it is difficult to deliver NF-kappaB decoy oligonucleotides (ODN) into the skin by conventional methods based on passive diffusion because of its hydrophilicity and high molecular weight. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro transdermal delivery of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-NF-kappaB decoy ODN using a pulse depolarization (PDP) iontophoresis. In vitro iontophoretic experiments were performed on isolated C57BL/6 mice skin using a horizontal diffusion cell. The apparent flux values of FITC-NF-kappaB decoy ODN were enhanced with increasing the current density and NF-kappaB decoy ODN concentration by iontophoresis. Accumulation of FITC-NF-kappaB decoy ODN was observed at the epidermis and upper dermis by iontophoresis. In mouse model of skin inflammation, iontophoretic delivery of NF-kappaB decoy ODN significantly reduced the increase in ear thickness caused by phorbol ester as well as the protein and mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the mice ears. These results suggest that iontophoresis is a useful and promising enhancement technique for transdermal delivery of NF-kappaB decoy ODN.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2010; 393(1-2):127-34. · 3.99 Impact Factor