Cytokeratin and laminin immunostaining in the diagnosis of cutaneous neuro‐endocrine (Merkel cell) tumours
ABSTRACT Nine cutaneous neuro-endocrine tumours have been immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to low molecular weight cytokeratin (CAM 5.2) and neurofilament. Polyclonal antisera to neurone-specific enolase, calcitonin and laminin were also used. All nine cases showed paranuclear, dot-like positive staining with CAM 5.2 and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for neurone-specific enolase. Neurofilament and calcitonin immunoreactivity could not be demonstrated. All tumours were negative for laminin immunoreactivity. The limitations of staining for neurone-specific enolase are discussed and the value of CAM 5.2 in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous neuro-endocrine tumours is emphasized. The histogenetic implications of the absence of laminin staining are considered.
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ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence is implicating stem cells in the pathogenesis of different cutaneous neoplasms. The immunohistochemical use of stem cell markers has facilitated stem cell identification. While few studies have examined the expression of cytokertatin (CK)15 and cytokeratin (CK)19 in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), only rarely have nestin expression been examined in these two malignancies. Furthermore, stem cell marker expression, to the best of our knowledge, has not been examined in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). In this study, we examined the expression of stem cell markers CK15, CK19 and nestin in 51 overall cases (11 cases of MCC and 20 cases each of BCC and SCC) retrieved from the pathology files of Skin Pathology Laboratory, Boston University School of Medicine. Cytokeratin 15 immunoreactivity was observed in 30% of BCC cases and only a single (5%) SCC case, while all MCC cases were negative. While 60% of BCC cases and 30% of SCC cases stained positively with CK19, all MCC cases showed positive immunostaining in a dot-like pattern. While negative in BCC and MCC, nestin expression was interestingly seen in 45% of SCC cases. Our study described the expression profiles of stem cell markers CK15, CK19 and nestin in BCC, SCC and MCC. In addition to confirming results of the previous reports, our study also showed positive nestin expression in around half of SCC cases, which adds this malignancy to the cutaneous tumours that have been so far reported to exhibit nestin expression.Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 03/2011; 25(3):311-6. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancies in the United States, with over 1.3 million patients diagnosed yearly. Several types of nonmelanoma skin cancer and precancerous lesions have an associated viral pathogenesis, including epidermodysplasia verruciformis, verrucous carcinoma, bowenoid papulosis, Kaposi sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and, most recently, Merkel cell carcinoma. It is now widely accepted that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play a key role in pathogenesis of cervical and anogenital cancer. Currently, 108 types of HPV have been discovered. They can be divided into genera including alpha, beta, and gamma HPVs, which comprise the majority of cutaneous HPVs. The relationship between viruses and cancer is a popular focus of research in an era of AIDS and organ transplantation, where immunosuppression is not uncommon. The incidence of viral-related malignancies in these populations is increasing. Because of the widespread nature of these cutaneous malignancies, an evaluation of these conditions is valuable. This review of the literature will focus on the histologic aspects of viral-associated skin malignancies, as well as the epidemiology, etiology, and clinical aspects of these diseases.The American Journal of dermatopathology 09/2009; 31(6):561-73. · 1.30 Impact Factor
- Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 08/1990; 15(4):235-44. · 1.33 Impact Factor