There is considerable evidence that women encounter a glass ceiling or barrier to advancement into the executive ranks of organizations. Although many expected this barrier to be obliterated with the large influx of women entering the work force over the last two decades, little change has actually occurred in the most senior ranks. In most sectors, women still comprise less than 5 percent of board directorships and corporate officerships.
This article focuses on emerging evidence which indicates that the trend in U.S. corporations toward high-involvement work teams, consensus decision making, and empowerment may actually benefit the leadership styles that women already exhibit. Preliminary evidence is also provided which indicates that female managers are seen as more transformational than their male counterparts—a leadership style that has been shown to have a strong positive impact on individual, group, and organizational performance.
"Given that the concept of leadership has been the subject of significant changes, it is quite possible that new standards regarding agentic and communal leadership behaviors have developed (Koenig et al., 2011). The transformational and the contingent reward leadership styles especially seem to encompass behaviors which could be described as communal (Bass and Avolio, 1994). From their finding that women are rated to use transformational leadership and contingent reward more often than men, Eagly et al. (2003) develop the assumption that women in particular might prefer these styles because of the greater overlap between this leadership style and the female gender role. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines whether the behaviors of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership are perceived as being more typical of female or male leaders. In a questionnaire study, 113 participants in Germany were asked to rate the probability of occurrence of a specific leadership behavior for male and female leaders, respectively. A diagnostic ratio for each leadership behavior allows the determination of the direction and degree of gender-specific evaluations. As predicted, transformational leadership is believed to be more typical of female leaders. Nevertheless, inspirational motivation and idealized influence attributed are rated as being gender neutral. For transactional leadership, contingent reward was perceived to be more typical of female leaders, whereas management by exception was rated as neutral. Contrary to expectation, laissez-faire was not perceived as more typical of male leaders, but rather as gender neutral. Implications regarding potential gender biases for selection, training, and performance appraisals of leaders are discussed.
"With the individualized consideration such leaders coach, support and encourage subordinates. Bass and Avolio (1994) stated that transformational leaders teach and help followers to develop their strengths, and listen attentively to the concerns of followers. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the influence transformational and transactional leadership styles have on job stress among employees in Ghana’s banking industry. The study made use of structured questionnaires to collect quantitative data. 196 questionnaires were returned by respondents out of 250 administered. The findings revealed a significant negative relationship between transformational leadership and job stress (β= -.193, p< .05) and a significant positive relationship between transactional leadership and job stress (β= .165, p< .05). From these findings, it is recommended that managers adopt transformational leadership behaviours in order to reduce job stress among employees in Ghana’s banking industry. This is a pioneering work in the Ghanaian context where participants have been drawn from 19 different banks; making it possible to get general views of employees concerning the subject.
Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, job stress, banking sector, Ghana
International Journal of Business and Management 07/2015; Vol. 10(,No. 8):161-170. DOI:10.5539/ijbm.v10n8p
"23 Traditional stereotypes associate corporate leadership with masculinity (Koenig et al. 2011) and with masculine traits, such as power, confidence, aggression, and objectivity (Offermann and Beil 1992). Rather than adopting characteristically male behavior, there is evidence in the management literature of successful female leaders adopting a distinctive, " transformational " style (Rosener 1990; Bass and Avolio 2006; Dezső and Ross 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper studies the impact of gender quotas for corporate board seats on corporate decisions. We examine the introduction of Norway’s 2006 quota, comparing affected firms to other Nordic companies, public and private, that were unaffected by the rule. We find that affected firms undertook fewer workforce reductions than comparison firms, increasing relative labor costs and employment levels and reducing short-term profits. The effects are strongest among firms without female board members beforehand and are present even for boards with older and more experienced members afterward. The boards appear to be affecting corporate strategy in part by selecting likeminded executives.
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