A feasibility study on seeding as a bioremediation practice for the oily Kuwaiti desert
ABSTRACT Immediately after a simulated oil spill, and for 28 weeks, Kuwaiti desert samples became steadily enriched with one specific, indigenous, oil-degrading Arthrobacter strain, KCC 201. Other indigenous oil degraders, including other Arthrobacter strains, either remained unchanged at low numbers or steadily disappeared. The partial hydrocarbon degradation in the polluted samples was primarily due to the indigenous, actively propagating Arthrobacter strain. Seeding the 28-week-old polluted samples with local or foreign oil-degrading isolates did not lead to enhancement of hydrocarbon degradation and resulted in dramatic decreases in the numbers of the predominant, indigenous, oil-degrading Arthrobacter strain, KCC 201. Some of the seeded organisms, particularly the foreign isolates, failed to establish themselves in the polluted samples, apparently because of microbial competition.
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ABSTRACT: The surfaces of root nodules of Vicia faba and Lupinus albus (legume crops), were colonized with bacterial consortia which utilized oil and fixed nitrogen. Such combined activities apparently make those periphytic consortia efficient contributors to bioremediation of oily nitrogen-poor desert soils. This was confirmed experimentally in this study. Thus, cultivating V. faba, L. albus and, for comparison, Solanum melongena, a nonlegume crop, separately in oily sand samples resulted in more oil attenuation than in an uncultivated sample. This effect was more pronounced with the legume crops than with the nonlegume crop. Furthermore, in flask cultures, V. faba plants with nodulated roots exhibited a higher potential for oil attenuation in the surrounding water than plants with nodule-free roots. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rRNA coding genes revealed that periphytic bacteria had DGGE bands not matching those of the oil-utilizing rhizospheric bacteria. Legume nodules also contained endophytic bacteria whose 16S rDNA bands did not match those of Rhizobium nor those of all other individual periphytic and rhizospheric strains. It was concluded that legume crops host on their roots bacterial consortia with a satisfactory potential for oil phytoremediation.Chemosphere 01/2009; 74(10):1354-9. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rhizosphere of two turf cover sorts; Bermuda grass and American grass contained high numbers, 8.1 to 16.8 x 10(6) g(-1) of cultivable oil-utilizing and diazotrophic bacteria belonging predominantly to the genera Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Gordonia, and Rhodococcus. Those bacteria also grew on a nitrogen-free medium and demonstrated the ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. These isolates grew on a wide range of n-alkanes (C9 to C40) and aromatic hydrocarbons, as sole sources of carbon. Quantitative determinations revealed that predominant bacteria consumed crude oil and representative aliphatic (n-octadecane) and aromatic (phenanthrene) hydrocarbons efficiently. The fact that those organisms had the combined activities of hydrocarbon-utilization and nitrogen-fixation makes them suitable tools for bioremediating oily desert areas that are normally poor in nitrogenous compounds. Phytoremediation experiments showed that spreading turf cover on oily desert soil inhibited oil volatilization and enhanced oil loss in soil by about 15%. Oil loss was also enhanced in turf free soil samples fertilized with NH4NO3. In conclusion, covering this oil-polluted soil with turf cover minimized atmospheric pollution, increased the numbers of the oil-utilizing/nitrogen-fixing bacteria by about 20 to 46% thus, encouraging oil attenuation.International Journal of Phytoremediation 02/2011; 13(2):156-67. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kuwaiti habitats with two-decade history of oil pollution were surveyed for their inhabitant oil-utilizing bacterioflora. Seawater samples from six sites along the Kuwaiti coasts of the Arabian Gulf and desert soil samples collected from seven sites all over the country harbored oil-utilizing bacteria whose numbers made up 0.0001-0.01% of the total, direct, microscopic counts. The indigenous bacterioflora in various sites were affiliated to many species. This was true when counting was made on nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-free media. Seawater samples harbored species belonging predominantly to the Gammaproteobacteria and desert soil samples contained predominantly Actinobacteria. Bacterial species that grew on the nitrogen-free medium and that represented a considerable proportion of the total in all individual bacterial consortia were diazotrophic. They gave positive acetylene-reduction test and possessed the nifH genes in their genomes. Individual representative species could utilize a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as sole sources of carbon and energy. Quantitative determination showed that the individual species consumed crude oil, n-octadecane and phenanthrene, in batch cultures. It was concluded that the indigenous microflora could be involved in bioremediation programs without bioaugmentation or nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation would be the most important practice in bioremediation of the polluted soil desert areas.Archives of Microbiology 03/2012; 194(8):689-705. · 1.91 Impact Factor